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CHAIRMAN. 

FROM 1881. 




ELLIOTT ANC FRY. 



BAKER STREET, LONDON, W. 






1884 



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BEING 



A SKETCH 



OF THE 



ORIGIN, CONSTITUTION, AND PROGRESS 



OF 



LLOYDS REGISTER 



BRITISH & FOREIGN SHIPPING. 






LONDON. 
MDCCCLXXXIV, 



WYMAN AND SONS, PRINTERS, 

GREAT QUBKN STREET, LINCOLn's-INN FIBLDg, 

LONDON W.r. 




xr- 




THE CHAIRMAN AND COMMITTEE 

OF 

UPON THIS, 

THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDATION 

OF THE SOCIETi', 

THINK THE OCCASION A FITTING ONE TO PRESENT TO EACH 

SUBSCRIBER, THIS SHORT OUTLINE OF THE ORIGIN AND 

PROGRESS OF THE INSTITUTION, — IN THE HOPE 

THAT ITS PERUSAL MAY PROVE OF INTEREST 

TO ALL CONNECTED WITH SHIPPING. 



2. White Lion Court, 

CoRNUiLL, London, 

30*4 OctoUr, 1884. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Early History of Classification. — Marine Insurance. — Lloyd's 
Coffee-house. — Ships' Lists. — Oldest Shipping Registers. — 
Books dated 1764-65-66, 1768-69, and 1775-76 




CHAPTER II. 

Constitution and Working of Underwriters' Register or Green 
Book. — Surveyors. — Members of Committee. — Symbols 
and Rules of Classification. — Records in Register Book ... lo 



CHAPTER III. 

Shipowners' Register or Red Book. — Explanations of their 
Plan. — Criticisms on Green Book. — Symbols of Classifi- 
cation in Red Book ... ... ... 17 



CHAPTER IV. 

Subscribers to the two Books. — Symbols of Classification in 
Green Book re-altered. — Amount of Subscription. — Num- 
ber of Vessels in the two Books. — Notation of Chain 
Cables. — Records of Early Steamers. — Early Steam Navi- 
gation. — Curious Records. — Shipbuilding Practices ... 23 



CHAPTER V. 

Rival Registers. — Expressions of Dissatisfaction. — Mr. John 
Marshall. — His advocacy of Radical Changes in Systems 
of Classing. — Arguments adduced. — Inquiry demanded. — 
Committee of Inquiry appointed ... ... ... ... 29 



vi Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Committee of Inquiry. — Their Report. — Suggestions and 
Financial Plans for Establishment of National Registry. — 
Collapse of the Movement 35 



CHAPTER VII. 

Decay of two Registers. — Special Committee of Lloyd's. — Pro- 
posed Fusion of the two Books. — Outline of proposed 
Constitution. — Conference. — Provisional Committee 
formed. — Proposed Rules and Regulations. — Financial 
Plans. — First Edition of " Lloyd's Register of British and 
Foreign Shipping " produced. — Permanent Committee 
appointed 43 



CHAPTER VIIL 

Composition of Permanent Committee. — Number and size of 
Ships in Mercantile Marine in 1834, — Early Rules for 
Shipbuilding. — Restoration of Vessels to the A Character. 
— Early Machinery Surveys. — Staff of Surveyors in 1834. 
— Shipwright and Nautical Surveyors. — Continuation 
Surveys — Tables for Wood Materials 53 



CHAPTER IX. 

Society now fully established. — Classification upon a proper 
Basis. — Application from Outports for more enlarged 
Representation. — Especially from Liverpool. — Establish- 
ment of a Liverpool Register. — Proposed Amalgamation 
with Lloyd's Register. — Amalgamation effected 64 



CHAPTER X. 

Excellence of New Rules for Construction and Classification of 
Ships. — Commercial Depression. — Financial Condition of 
Society. — Report of Select Committee of House of Com- 
mons—Growth of the Society. — Report of General Ship- 
owners' Society. — Public Opinion regarding the Register. 
— Number of Vessels Classed per Annum 69 




Table of Contents. vii 



CHAPTER XL 

Iron Ships.— Surveyors' Reports on Iron Shipbuilding. — Iron 
Rules of 1854.— Rules for Sun'ey of Iron Ships.— Mr. 
Ritchie on the Society's Operations.- Survey of Iron 
Steamers ... ... ... ... ••• .•• ••• 75 



CHAPTER XII. 

Corrosion of Iron Ships. — Experiments in sheathing them. — 

Composite Ships.— Preparation of Rules for building them 83 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Applications from the Provinces in 1863 for share in Manage- 
ment. — Liverpool Proposals. — Extension of the Com- 
mittee. — Outport Members added. — Representation of 
Shipbuilders not allowed. — Underwriters' Registry for Iron 
Vessels. — Proposals for Amalgamation discussed. — Finally 
rejected. — Liverpool Committee of Lloyd's Register. — 
Enlarged Powers ... ... ... ... 87 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Revision of Rules for Iron Ships in 1863. — Reports of Ship- 
builders and Surveying Staff. — Objections to Old System of 
classifying Iron Ships. — New S}Tnbols adopted. — Periodical 
Surveys for Iron Ships. — Amendments in Tables of Scant- 
lings. — Revision of Iron Rules in 1870. — Mr. Waymouth's 
Proposals. — Dimensions adopted in lieu of Tonnage as a 
basis for Scantlings. — New Symbols 94 



CHAPTER XV. 

Alteration in Rules for Wood Ships in 1857. — Special Sur\'ey 
Mark >J< instituted. — Classes for Foreign-built Ships. — 
Diagonal Doubling.— Alteration in Rules for Wood Ships 
in 1870.— Salting.— MLxed Material Rule.— Improved 
Classes to Wood Materials. — Still further improved in 
1878. — Defective Equipment 100 




viii Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Surveyors abroad. — North American Timber and Shipbuilding. 
— Appointment of Surveyors for Canada ; also to Holland 
and Belgium, &c. — Surveyors appointed for Shanghai ; 
also ports in Italy and Austria. — Mr. Waymouth's visit to 
Genoa. — Present number of Foreign Surveyors 105 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Equipment Rules in 1834. — Supplemented in 1846. — Testing 
of Chains. — Rules of 1853. — Table 22 issued. — Equip- 
ment Rules of 1862. — Poplar Proving House: its establish- 
ment and close. — More stringent Requirements in 1863. — 
Chain and Anchors Act of 1871. — Proving Houses now 
under Control of the Society ... ... 109 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Rules for Survey of Machinery in 1834. — Resolutions of the 
Committee in 1873. — Engineer Surveyors appointed. — 
Dangerous arrangements of Pipes and Sea-cocks. — Sur- 
veyors' Reports. — Machinery Rules. — Extent of Machinery 
Surveys ... ... ... ... ... 112 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Manufacture of Steel in i860. — Steel Shipbuilding in 1862, 
1864, and 1866. — Steel tests in 1867. — Bessemer and 
Siemens-Martin Processes. — Steel "resurrection" in 1877. 
— Investigations by Society's Officers. — Its use for Ships 
and Boilers. — Tonnage of Steel Shipping. — Steel Castings. 
— Inspection of Forgings ... ... ... 118 



CHAPTER XX. 

Royal School of Naval Architecture. — Royal Naval College. — 
Private Students. — Grant for Scholarship. — Conditions of 
Competition... ... ... ... ... 126 



"able of Contents. ix 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Classification of Yachts undertaken. — Yacht Register insti- 
tuted. — Its Growth. — Special Classes for Fishing Vessels 128 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Draught of Water in Early Register Books. — Awning-deck 
Vessels. — Their Load-line. — Committee's decision chal- 
lenged. — Judgment of Court of Law thereon. — Spar-deck 
Vessels. — Board of Trade detention of Overladen Vessels. — 
Action of Committee in regard to Load-line Question. — 
Tables of Freeboard ... ... ... ... ... 130 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Representation of Outports on Committee. — Proposed exten- 
sion. — Sub-Committee appointed. — Decision of General 
Committee. — Present Constitution of Committee... ... 137 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Pensions to Society's Officers. — Insurance Scheme. — Mr. Way- 
mouth's suggestions on the subject. — Pension Scheme 
adopted by the Committee .. . ... ... ... ... 140 



CHAPTER XXV. 

The present Register Book. — Comparison with that of 1834. — 
Recent Additions. — Number of Subscribers now ; also in 
1834. — Comparative Tonnages at the two dates. — The 
Posting of Alterations in the Book 142 



CHAPTER XXVI. 
Personal.— Mr. Thomas Chapman.— Mr. W. H. Tindall.— 
List of Chairmen, Deputy-Chairmen, and Chairmen of 

b 






■C' 



X 



Annals of Lloyd's Register 



Sub-Committees of Classification, from 1834 to 1884. — 
Early Members of Committee. — Early Officers. — Principal 
Officers to present time. — Confidence of Government in 
Society's Officials. — Royal Commissions, &c., on which 
Society has been represented ... ... ... ••■145 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



Conclusion 



155 



Committee of Management 

List of Surveyors ... 

Colonial and Foreign Surveyors 



159 
162 

164 







'^^ 




Annals' of Hlogti's Ertjiotcn 




CHAPTER I. 



HE early history of the 
Classification of Ships is 
veiled in much obscurit}'. 
The first recorded attempt 
to establish anything like 
an organised Registry dates 
back no farther than last 
centur}', although it admits 
of littie doubt that the classification of merchant 
shipping in a more or less imperfect form existed 
long before — if, indeed, it was not contemporaneous 
with the business of Marine Insurance. 

Of the remote beginning of Marine Insurance, 
with which the subject of classification is so closely 
allied, little is known. All the best authorities, how- 
ever, consider that, in some form or other, it was 
coeval with maritime commerce itself, which goes 
back to antiquity. 

The Phoenicians, the great trading nation of old, 

B 



"C. 



the Greeks, and other ancient peoples, were all, we 
are told, in the habit of guarding themselves against 
some of the risks of maritime enterprise by various 
systems of insurance, whether by means of loans or 
of mutual guarantees. " Nautical Insurance," as 
Gibbon terms it, was so common with the Romans, 
that we find it made the subject of a special pro- 
vision in one of the Justinian Laws, dated a.d. 533, 
which, whilst restricting the legal rate of usury to 
6 per cent., made special exemption in favour of 
this "perilous adventure." Coming down to the 
Middle Ages, we find Marine Insurance carried on 
regularly in the Italian Republics, — which even went 
so far as to regulate by law the depth beyond 
which each vessel should not be loaded, — while 
operations of this nature were then becoming not 
unusual in England. 

With the practice of insuring ships and their car- 
goes against sea risk there would naturally arise the 
necessity of adopting means to ascertain whether 
the vessels were seaworthy, and to have the relative 
qualities of ships in this respect classified and recorded 
in some manner convenient to persons interested in 
shipping. 

The Merchant would not be willing to employ, 
nor the Underwriter to insure, a ship, without first 
acquainting himself with her fitness for the carriage 
of merchandise across the seas. To employ an 
expert to inspect and report upon every ship when 
proposed for insurance would only be practicable 
when few ships existed, and when the business 
of marine insurance was in its infancy. With the 



T 



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Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



w. 



growth of the mercantile marine would grow the 
demand for a shipping register — not a list of the 
ships merely, but a record of their size, and of their 
condition and qualities at specified dates. With such 
a list before them, the parties interested in a vessel, — 
the Merchant desirous of securing a safe conveyance 
for his goods, or the Underwriter w^illing to insure 
the risks of the voyage, — could form some reason- 
able idea of her capabilities without going personally 
to see her. It is thus evident that a maritime country 
like England, whose 

Argosies with portly sail, 
Like signiors and rich burghers on the flood, 

have long been known in all parts of the world, 
must have possessed at an early date some such 
record of the seagoing vessels upon which insurances 
would be effected. 

It appears, indeed, from the researches of the late 
Mr. Frederick Martin, that accounts of this nature, 
termed " Ships' Lists," were kept for their own 
guidance by the early frequenters of Lloyd's Coffee- 
house. This establishment, the earliest notice of 
which occurs in the shape of an advertisement in the 
London Gazette of the i8th February, 1668, was 
situated first in Tower Street, and from 1692 on- 
ward in Lombard Street, at the corner of Abchurch 
Lane. It was owned by a Mr. Edward Lloyd, 
under whose able management it became the great 
resort for all persons connected with shipping, gra- 
dually developing into the head-quarters of maritime 
business, and especially of marine insurance. 

B 2 



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Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



That the house was well known is shown by the 
fact of its having formed the subject of a paper by 
Steele in the Taller of 1710, and of another by 
Addison in the Spectator of the following year ; 
while it is referred to in The Wealthy Shopkeeper, 
a poem published some ten years earlier, in the follow- 
ing terms : — 

Now to Lloyd's Coffee-house ; he never fails 
To read the letters and attend the sales. 

Lloyd seems to have been a man of unusual ability 
and enterprise. He it was who started that system 
of shipping intelligence which, under the direction of 
the great Marine Insurance Corporation of " Lloyd's," 
has grown to be one of the most extensive and most 
perfect organisations in the world of commerce. He 
established and conducted newspapers at a time when 
journalistic enterprise was in its infancy and the 
freedom of the press was unknown. His first ven- 
ture was a shipping and commercial chronicle called 
Lloyd's News, which, begun in September, 1696, and 
issued three times a week, was brought to a prema- 
ture end in the following February, in consequence of 
the Government having taken offence at some trifling 
allusion to the proceedings of the House of Lords. 
This paper, however, was the forerunner of the 
world-famous Lloyds List, which was commenced in 
1726, and has continued to the present day. It is 
thus able to claim the distinction of being, with the 
sole exception of the official London Gazette, the oldest 
newspaper now in existence. 

At Lloyd's Coffee-house, also, if not by Lloyd him- 






A7mals of Lloyd's Register. 



self, were started those Ships' Lists already alluded to, 
containing the germs of The Register of Shipping which 
sprang into public existence at some period during last 
century, and which, besides being the first English 
Classification Society of which there is any record, 
is the parent of all other Shipping Registries now 
in existence. These Lists, which were written by 
hand, contained an account of vessels which the 
Underwriters who met at Lloyd's Coffee-house were 
likely to have offered to them for insurance. They were 
doubtless, in the first instance, and probably for some 
considerable time, passed from hand to hand, much 
in the same way as the written news-letters of the 
period. They were most probably first put into 
type and circulated for the use of subscribers in 
the form of a printed Register about 1726, the year 
that witnessed the establishment oi Lloyd's List. No 
early copies of such a work, however, appear to be 
now in existence ; any which may have been pre- 
served until that time having, it is supposed, been 
destroyed in the fire which laid the Royal Exchange 
in ashes in 1838. 

In 1770, the principal Underwriters and Brokers 
who had for so long made the Coffee-house their 
meeting-place, found it desirable to form themselves 
into an association held together by a system of mem- 
bership, and to remove from Lombard Street. Their 
first place of meeting was in Pope's Head Alley 
whence they went a few years later .to the Royal 
Exchange, there to set up on a " permanent footing 
the great institution which has flourished ever since 
on the same spot, growing from generation to gene- 



ration," and making the name of Lloyd's a " household 
word all over the world." 

The oldest copy of a Register of Shipping in the 
library of Lloyd's Register Office, — indeed, as far as 
can be ascertained after diligent search, the oldest 
copy of any book of the kind at present in existence, — 
bears the date of 1 764-65-66, for which period it was 
evidently current. It is of an oblong form, differing 
in this respect from all the succeeding volumes, and 
its singed edges bear evidence of having passed 
through the flames. 

A specimen page of this book, reproduced on 
the opposite side, shows that the information which 
it contained was of a very complete nature. It 
comprised the former and present names of the 
vessels, those of the owners and masters, the ports 
between which the vessels traded, the tonnage, 
the number of their crew and of the guns they 
carried, the port and year of build ; together with the 
classification printed in the column indicating the year 
in which the vessels were respectively surveyed, the 
column headed *' 66," left blank at publication, being 
intended to receive the latest alterations in writing. 
Further particulars were added in the column headed 
" Guns " in the shape of notations descriptive of the 
vessels, such as " Sd," single deck, " SdB," single 
deck with tier of beams, " 3 Decks," " Dbld," &c. 

The vessels recorded in this volume are for 
the most part, of very small size ; but several are to 
be found of four, five, and six hundred tons, and there 
are two ships of eight and one of no less than nine 
hundred tons. 



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Annals of Lloyds Register. 7 

The classes assigned to the vessels were desig- 
nated by the letters A, E, I, O, and U, which 
referred to the vessels' hulls, while the letters G, M, 
and B, — meaning " good," " middling," and " bad," — 
related to the equipment. Thus the class AG would 
denote a first-class ship with a good outfit, while 
UB would be the designation given to a ship of the 
lowest class, and with a bad outfit. 

The tide- page and the front pages of this book 
are wanting, but it appears from the last page that 
the work was '* Printed by W. Richardson and S. 
Clark, in Fleet Street," the firm which in all proba- 
bility succeeded to the business of Richardson the 
novelist, who, it is well known, had a printing esta- 
blishment in this street some years before the date of 
issue of this volume. Judging from the completeness 
of this edition, it is only reasonable to suppose that 
the Register must have existed for some considerable 
time previously. 

The next Register, in point of date, preserved in 
the Office at White Lion Court, is dated 1768-69, 
columns being left blank for posting by hand par- 
ticulars for the years 1770-71. This volume differs 
considerably both in regard to form and arrangement 
of contents from the book we have just described, 
as will be seen upon reference to the specimen page 
given on the other side. In addition to the par- 
ticulars stated in the earlier Register, this book also 
contained references to the vessels' rigs, and afforded 
information of the repairs effected, such as *'rep.," 
"thro' rep.," "great rep.," "well rep.," "good rep.," 
"reb.,"&c. 



8 Annals of Lloyd's Register'. 

The most remarkable difference, however, occurs 
in the symbols of classification. Instead of the capital 
letters A, E, I, O, and U being employed for desig- 
nating the several classes, we now find the small 
letters ^ ^ and ^ used for that purpose ; while the 
numerals I, 2, 3, and 4 are now adopted for the 
first time in describing the condition of the equipment. 
For instance, "aj" j^ this Register denoted a first- 
class ship with a first-class equipment, while "^2" 
denoted a second-class ship with a second-class equip- 
ment. It will thus be seen that between the years 
1764 and 1768 a change had been made from " AG" 
to "^I " in the direction of the designation "A 1." 

The third earliest Register preserved is dated 
1775-76, and in arrangement much resembles the 
preceding one ; but in this book the Roman capitals are 
again employed for the classification of the hull, while 
the figures I and 2 remain for that of the equipment. 
This volume appears to be the earliest book extant, 
containing the now familiar class of A 1. It may be 
observed that in this issue the load-draught of water 
appears to have been inserted in place of the column 
formerly appropriated for the number of men in the 
crew, and the alterations which, in the earlier copies 
alluded to, had been made with pen and ink, were 
now posted weekly in type, as at the present time. 

The arrangement of the work in subsequent 
editions remained substantially the same, no alteration 
being made beyond the occasional introduction of a 
few more particulars, such as, whether a vessel had 
a deep waist or a low counter, whether she was 
American property, what timber was used in her con- 




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Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



struction, &c. A list of the ships of the Royal Navy 
and of the East India Company was also introduced. 

The front cover and first page of the three earliest 
books are, unfortunately, missing, but these books 
contain sufficient internal evidence to show that the 
two later volumes form part of the series of T/ie 
Register of Shipping founded in 1 760, of which there 
is a very complete collection from 1775 onwards. 
This Registry was latterly known as the " Under- 
writers' Register," or the Green Book. As already 
stated, the earliest volume (dated 1 764-65-66) differs 
from the succeeding books, and this fact has given rise 
to the supposition that it did not belong to the same 
series, but was the issue of a rival Register, which was 
still in existence in 1768-69, when the small letters 
were in use by the Underwriters' Register, but had 
disappeared before 1775, leaving its successor free to 
adopt the capital letters in combination with figures 
as a designation of class, which has almost ever since 
been retained. 




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CHAPTER II. 

|IN the absence of more complete records than 
those now in existence, it is difficult to 
ascertain accurately what were the consti 
tution and practical working of the Registry- 
established in 1760. It is pretty evident, how- 
ever, from the most reliable sources of information 
at hand, that the Register was established and sup- 
ported exclusively by Underwriters for their sole use 
as ** Members of the Society," as the Subscribers were 
then termed, and that the subscriptions formed the 
principal, if not, indeed, the only, source of revenue. 
The work was issued at first biennially, and after 
a few years annually. Strict rules were adopted 
and rigidly enforced, with the object of confining the 
use of the book to Members. Each Subscriber at the 
end of the year was obliged to deliver up his old 
book before a new one was issued to him, and at one 
time, if a book were lost or stolen, the person to 
whom it belonged was refused another, although will- 
ing to pay for it. The volume for 1779-80 contains 
the following quaint prohibition : — 



Anfials of LloycCs Register. 1 1 

" COPY of the BY-LAWS relating to the reserving the 
REGISTER-BOOKS for the Use of the MEMBERS of the 
SOCIETY only. 

"As the interest of the Society is, in the first 
Instance, greatly hurt by the Custom of shewing the 
Books, and leaving them at Places where they are but 
too common, thereby preventing many Underwriters 
from becoming Members, who, though they reap the 
Advantages and Benefits in common with them, do not 
pay their Quota towards the expenses of the Institution, 
thereby, as much as in them lies, reducing the Members 
to the Necessity of paying larger Subscriptions." 

" XII. It is therefore agreed to by the Societ)^, and 
every Member thereof, and ordered by them to be a 
standing Rule and By-law strictly to be observed, that 
if any Member shall, after the 6th of February, 1773, 
shew or give his Book to any Person whatever, not a 
Member of the Society, to read the Description or 
Character therein of any Ship, or shall read the same to 
him, or tell him the same after looking in his Book, or 
lend the said Book to him, such Member shall forfeit the 
Sum of 5s. 3d., and, for the second Breach of this By-law 
the Sum of los. 6d., for the third Breach thereof the 
Sum of ;^i. IS., and for the fourth (all of them in Manner 
aforesaid and within the Year) his Book shall not be 
posted any more, except he pays the Sum of Two 
Guineas and all former Forfeitures, within Fourteen 
Days of the Notice he shall receive thereof from the 
Secretary ; or pays the Sum of Five Guineas for a new 
Book any time thereafter, within the Year, and delivers 
up his old one." 

"XIII. In like Manner, if any Member shall leave 
his Book at any Place, except where he shall himself 
appoint constantly to leave the same locked up ; and 
that said Book, by that Means cannot be found for three 
Days, or shall be found in the Possession of any Person 
not a Member; such Member shall in like Manner 
j forfeit as before, for the ist, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Breach of 



the said By-law : But if the Book shall be entirely lost, 
the Forfeit shall be settled by the Committee, and the 
Member be obliged to pay Five Guineas for a new one." 

The front pages of all the older books are missing, 
but the volume for iJJJ-J^, although without the 
title-page, contains a " List of the Members of the 
Society," numbering about a hundred and thirty, and 
including the most eminent Members of Lloyd's. 
It seems, from the following announcement printed 
on the inside of the cover of the volume for 1781-82 
(but, unfortunately, partially destroyed by the cutting 
out of the Subscriber's name), that the Members or 
Subscribers met occasionally to discuss matters per- 
taining to the Register. 

"At a General Meeting of the Society, on the 12th 
December last, it was unanimously resolved : 

" That Mr. Alexander Stupart be appointed to 
survey any damage sustained by [Shipping] which is to 
be repaired in the River of Thames ; and [that] Under- 
writers be desired to employ him in that service [which 
it is] supposed will be attended with many advantages." 

" That the expence of Mr, Stupart's surveys be paid 
[by the] Society, to be determined annually." 

Although this is the first, and, indeed, only refer- 
ence in any of the early volumes to Surveyors, there 
can be no doubt that such Officers were employed 
from a much earlier period, as we find it intimated 
in a previous book that all ships not surveyed within 
three years preceding the issue of the volume had 
been left out. Besides this fact, the occurrence in the 
1768-69 Register Book of the records referring to 
repairs already alluded to seems to point to a super- 
vision being exercised by Officers of the Society 



.s~ 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 13 

upon ships when under repair, even so far back as 
that date. 

In the issue dated 1797-98 appear for the first 
time the " Names of the Gentlemen who compose 
the Committee for conducting the Affairs of the 
Society," numbering eleven, and including Mr. John 
Julius Angerstein, the Chairman of Lloyd's. 

The members of the Committee were : — 

John Julius Angerstein, Geo. Curling, 

William Bell, Wm. Hamilton, 

John Bourke, Robert Hunter, 

John Campbell, Robert Pulsford, 

Alex. Champion, Edward Vaux, 

Jacob Wilkinson. 

It is not clear whether the Committee were in exist- 
ence from the commencement of the Registry, or were 
appointed just prior to this publication of their names ; 
neither is there anything to show whether the Com- 
mittee were elected by, and were directly responsible 
to, the Members or Subscribers, or whether vacancies 
as they arose were filled up by the Committee from 
the body of Members. It seems most probable, 
however, that the Committee were formed prior to 
the institution of the Registr)' in 1760, and that 
they exercised the power of filling up vacancies in 
their own body. The meetings of the Committee 
were, it appears, always held at Lloyd's Coffee- 
house, but the office of the Registry was situated 
first in Sun Court and subsequently in Castle Court, 
Birchin Lane. 

In the Register Book for 1797-98 a new style 
of classification was introduced, which, being scarcely 






14 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

equitable in its operation, aroused feelings of con- 
siderable dissatisfaction, and ultimately led to the 
formation of a rival Register. The changes were of 
two kinds — for not only the conditions of classifica- 
tion, but also the symbols denoting the classes, were 
altered. The characters assigned were M for the 
first class, G for the second class, L for the third 
class, and Z for the lowest class, with the numerals 8 
or 4 attached ; and the classification appears to have 
been so altered as to depend entirely upon the place 
of build and the age of the vessel. Thus, while a 
vessel built on the Thames would be entitled to 
continue on the first class for a term of thirteen 
years, another ship of the same description built at 
one of the northern ports would be considered eligible 
for a period of only eight years ; while prize ships 
whose ages were not ascertained could receive no 
characters whatever — the numeral describing the con- 
dition of the equipment and the date of survey being 
alone inserted in such cases. As regards the latter class 
of vessel, of which there appears, from records of the 
period, to have been a considerable number, a note 
in the Register Book states that, "When the Ages 
of Prize Vessels cannot be ascertained, FP, SP, or 
DP is put in the Column for the Age to denote 
the Nation from whom they have respectively been 
captured. And, when the Surveyors can ascertain 
their Age to be less than Three Years, AN is put 
into the Column for the Age to denote that the Vessel 
is almost new." 

It is interesting to notice the low estimation in 
which vessels built in the northern ports were held, 



^ 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 15 

not only at this time, but for long after. Twenty- 
five years later considerable evidence was taken by 
a Joint Committee of Merchants, Shipowners, and 
Underwriters upon this subject ; and, although it 
was generally admitted by the persons examined 
that there were no reasons why as good a ship 
might not be built in a northern port as in the 
Thames, yet it was the general opinion that usually 
the London-built ships were worthy of at least a year 
longer classification than those of Newcastle, Sunder- 
land, &c. Mr. Edward Gibson, a shipbuilder of Hull, 
in his evidence before this Committee, stated that 
" ships built on the river Thames are unquestionably 
better than those built at outports : the London 
builders obtain better prices, and can therefore afford 
to build them of a better description. If the same 
inducements were held out, there is no reason why 
vessels built at the outports should not be equally 
good." 

To give so great an advantage to London-built 
ships was evidently a mistake, for by such a regulation 
shipbuilding enterprise elsewhere was considerably 
damaged, while at the same time no guarantee was 
obtained that the favoured builders would continue 
to produce such superior ships as before. There 
can be no doubt that then, as now, excellent vessels 
were built at all parts of the British Islands, and that 
the first step towards getting a good ship was to pay 
a good price. 

The dissatisfied Shipowners made strong repre- 
sentations on the subject to the Registry Committee, 
and, failing to obtain the assent of the latter to their 






views, several of them, in 1799, started The New 
Register Book of Shipping, having offices at No. 22, 
Change Alley, and afterwards at No. 3, St. Michael's 
Alley. This work, although bearing on the title- 
page the statement that it was issued by a " Society 
of Merchants, Shipowners, and Underwriters," ap- 
pears to have been in reality managed by Ship- 
owners only, and was commonly known as the " Ship- 
owners' Register," or Red Book. The characters 
assigned by the new Registry were expressed by the 
vowels A, E, I, and O, with the figures 1, 2, and 3 
for the condition of the " materials," — as the equipment 
of a vessel was then termed. The new Register 
Book was a trifle larger than the Underwriters' Book, 
of which it was, both as regards the particulars it 
contained and their arrangement, a precise copy. 
The elder Society appears to have had Surveyors 
stationed at twenty-four ports in the United Kingdom, 



VIZ. 



Belfast, 


Exmouth, 


Leith, 


Star Cross, 


Bristol, 


Exeter, 


Liverpool, 


Teignmouth, 


Cork, 


Falmouth, 


London, 


Topsham, 


Cowes, 


Greenock, 


Lynn, 


Waterford, 


Dartmouth, 


Hull, 


Poole, 


Whitehaven, 


Dublin, 


Lancaster, 


Portsmouth, 


Yarmouth. 



The Shipowners' Society modified this list slightly 
in the case of their Book, leaving out Exmouth and 
Star Cross, and appointing representatives at New- 
castle, Plymouth, Sunderland, Shields, Workington, 
and Whitby, in addition to those at the other twenty- 
two ports. 







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CHAPTER III. 

T the date to which we have now come 
(i/99) there were, therefore, two Register 
Books in operation, known as the Green 
Book and the Red Book, the former beino- 
the Underwriters' and the latter the Shipowners' 
Register. 

The following was the constitution of the com- 
mittee of the Red Book in 1 799 : — 

John Hill, Chairman. 
Norrison Coverdale, Charles Kensington, 



Robert Curling, 
Joseph Dowson, 
Thomas Homcastle, 
Ives Hurry, 

Ralph Keddey, 
Thomas Keddey, 



Thomas King, 
William Leighton, 
John Lyall, 
J. J- Oddy, 
William Sims, 
William Thompson. 



The Committee of the Red Book, in an expla- 
nation with which they prefaced that volume, men- 
tioned that — 

" The Society for conducting the Publication of the 
New Register Book of Shipping think it necessary to 
give a general Explanation of their Plan, as well as to 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



state the Motives which induce them to undertake a 
Work of so much importance. 

" It is well known that a Book has, for a long series 
of years, been annually printed under the direction of a 
Committee of a Society, formed of Subscribers, for the 
information of Underwriters ; which Book, after a variety 
of alterations, was at length arranged in a manner that 
gave general satisfaction ; and, having continued above 
twenty- four years to be the record of the age, burthen, 
built, quality, and condition of vessels and their materials, 
marked according to the opinion of skilful and diligent 
Surveyors (employed by the Society in all the principal 
ports of the kingdom) had become a Book of Authority, 
and, in a great degree, governed the Merchant, the Ship- 
owner, and Underwriter, in their opinions of the quality 
of Ships for the purpose of freighting goods or insuring, 
and, consequently, in a great measure regulated their 
value. 

" In the preceding year the Committee of the Society, 
without consulting the Subscribers at large, made an 
entire change in this system, so long established and so 
universally approved, and substituted in its place a plan 
founded on a principle diametrically opposite and 
perfectly erroneous. 

" Instead of classing the Ships which they gave an 
account of according to the actual state and condition, 
ascertained by a careful Surveyor, a new system was 
adopted of stamping the character of the Ship wholly 
by her age and the place in which she was built, without 
any regard to the manner in which she was originally 
constructed, the wear or damage she might have 
sustained, or the repairs she might from time to time 
have received, or even being rebuilt : thereby at once 
obviating the necessity of surveying the hulls of vessels, 
lessening the inducement to build Ships upon principles 
of strength and durability, and taking away the 
encouragement to keep them in the best state of repair, 
that they might maintain their character in the Register 
Book alluded to." 



Actuals of Lloyd's Register. 19 

A list of the classes assigned to vessels built at 
the several ports was then given, by which it seems 
that in the Green Book the thirteen-years class was 
given to ships built in the River Thames, Royal 
Dockyards, and India. The twelve-years class was 
assigned to vessels built in certain ports on the south 
coast of England. Many of the Channel ports, how- 
ever, were considered capable of producing only 
ten-year ships ; Liverpool and Bristol also being in 
this list. To vessels built in Scotland, Wales, the 
north-east ports of England, and some of the east 
coast ports, only eight years were assigned. French, 
Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, and some Ger- 
man ships were also granted a term of eight years. 
United States built ships were allowed twelve years 
when built of the live oak of the Southern States, 
but otherwise only six years were granted to them. 
Colonial and fir-built vessels were allowed as little as 
five, and in some cases only four years ; but ships built 
at Quebec and Bermuda were granted a class of ten 
years. Upon the expiration of the number of years 
first assigned on the I\I letter, a continuation on the 
G letter, or second class, was given. Vessels classed 
thirteen years were further allowed seven years on 
the letter G ; those of twelve and ten years obtained 
five years ; and those of eight years were continued 
for six years ; while six-year vessels were allowed 
another four years, and so on. 

The Red Book Committee go on to say in their 
introductory explanation : — 

"No general reasons have been assigned for the new 
plan ; and, as to the distinction of places, imagination is 

C 2 



left to its free scope to ascertain what causes make some 
situations so inferior to others ; for instance, why should 
ships built at Quebec stand in the first class two years 
longer than vessels built at Hull or the Northern ports 
of this kingdom, Wales, &c. ? and professional men are 
equally at a loss to conjecture why the Committee have 
thought proper to class the shipping of some ports in 
these kingdoms in degrees so much inferior to that of 
others ; not to say anything respecting the relative situ- 
ations in which ships in foreign ports are placed. On 
the first appearance of this new system, meetings were 
held by a numerous body of the shipowners of this city, 
who came to resolutions, expressing in the strongest 
manner their disapprobation of the conduct of the 
Committee of the Society, and amongst other resolutions 
declared their opinion that it was ' founded in error, and 
calculated to mislead the judgment of merchants and 
underwriters, and, if continued, would not only prove 
of the most injurious consequences to individual ship- 
owners, merchants, and underwriters, but to every branch 
of trade connected with repairing and refitting vessels ; 
and in a great measure tend to destroy the shipping of 
the country.' " 

After a few further remarks, from which we 
learn that the Shipowners' Committee, when they 
sought to point out to the Committee of the Green 
Book the injurious tendency of their system, were 
refused an interview by the latter, the Red Book 
Committee proceed to indicate the character of 
their Rules. These are so brief as to occupy but 
one page of the book, and contain no instructions 
whatever in regard to the scantlings and construc- 
tion of ships, but refer only to the place of their 
build. Singularly enough, after complaining of a 
similar system, the Shipowners' Committee adopted 
a method of original classification based almost en- 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 1 1 

tirely upon the locality in which the ships were 
built, but with the important difference that subse- 
quent classification at the expiration of the original 
class depended upon the condition of repair in which 
they were found. 

Thames-built ships, if built entirely of British oak 
and well fastened, were classed twelve years, and 
*'countr)^-built" ships, on the same conditions, were 
classed for ten years. It is scarcely necessary to 
state in detail the rules of classification adopted in 
the new Register. It may be sufficient to say that 
the four classes were, as already mentioned, repre- 
sented by the letters A, E, I, and O. I 

The second class, marked E, included all ships 
kept in perfect repair that appeared on survey to have 
no defects, and to be completely calculated to carry a 
dry cargo safely. 

The third class, marked I, was composed of ships 
which, from defect or want of thorough and sub- 
stantial repair, did not appear upon survey perfectly 
safe to carry dry goods, though deemed seaworthy 
for carrying goods not liable to sea damage. 

The fourth class, marked O, was composed of 
vessels out of repair, which were not deemed safe and 
seaworthy for a foreign voyage. 

The numerals 1 and 2 after the letter related to 
the "ship's materials" or outfit; if well found, the 
vessel was marked 1, and if indifferently found she was 
marked 2. 

The system of classification adopted by the 
Committee of the Red Book w^as also based, 
although perhaps to a less extent than in the 

>^^ '>>. 



22 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



Green Book, upon the place of build and the age 
of the vessel. Under the regulations of both 
Societies, a vessel, upon the expiration of her original 
class, lapsed to an inferior grade, and no amount 
of repairs or strengthening would enable her to be 
again placed upon the A 1 character; while in 
neither case were there any Rules for the construc- 
tion and systematic survey of vessels, and the Sur- 
veyors were practically uncontrolled in their decisions. 
In both cases the systems were unsound ; and, 
although the books remained in concurrent circula- 
tion until they were merged in the present Society 
in 1834, their operations appear to have encountered 
the hostility of a large section of the Shipping com- 
munity long before that date. 




-i- 




CHAPTER IV. 




T the beginning of the year 1 8co, the Green 
Book numbered 233 subscribers, and the 
Red Book only 125 ; but during the year 
the latter received an accession of no less 
than 76 subscribers, one of whom took twelve books, 
whereas the Green Book only shows 31 new members 
during the year. It would thus appear that the 
Shipowners' Register vtry quickly gained popularity 
and strength in the early stage of its existence. 

In 1800 the Committee of the Underwriters' 
Register, or Green Book, influenced, apparently, by 
the agitation which their altered system of classifi- 
cation had provoked, returned to the use of the former 
symbols of character, A, E, I, O, and U. In the issue 
for the same year was also witnessed the introduction 
for the first time of a title-page to the work, with 
the inscription " Instituted in 1760." A " Key to the 
Register Book " was also then inserted, which, how- 
ever, gave no real explanation of the manner in 
which a ship was classed. Another alteration 
observed in this volume is the entry of the age of 
a vessel in place of the year of build, which was 
formerly recorded. 



J> 



24 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

The re-appearance in the Green Book of the old 
signs was not without its effect upon the circulation of 
its rival. Accordingly, in the following issue, or third 
edition, of the Red Book, we find a new preface 
inserted, pointing out that, although at first sight it 
might appear that the Committee of the other 
Register had forsaken their new principles, and 
returned to their original system, yet "it will be 
found, on inspection, that the new plan is still adhered 
to, namely, that of giving characters to ships accord- 
ing to their ages and the places where built, without 
a due regard to the manner in which they were 
originally built, the repairs they have received, and 
their actual state and condition." 

It is clear, however, upon a careful scrutiny of the 
Books issued about this period, that the practice of 
the Underwriters' Register had been altered in at 
least one particular. According to the Rules current 
in 1 798-99, prize ships and other vessels whose ages 
could not be ascertained were not eligible to receive 
any class whatever. But many of the vessels of this 
description, which were refused characters in that 
and previous years, appeared in the succeeding 
editions of the Green Book with classes assigned to 
them.. 

From a receipt written upon one of the fly-leaves 
of the Red Book for 1801, now in the collection at 
Lloyd's Register Office, it seems that the amount of 
the subscription for this volume was, from its com- 
mencement, eight guineas per annum. It was, doubt- 
less, mainly due to this fact that the Committee 
of the Underwriters' Register, in 18 10 (the fiftieth 



* 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



year of its existence), reduced the price of their 
Book from twelve to eight guineas. 

The vessels classed in the oldest Reo^ister Book 
extant, namely, that dated 1764-65-66, amounted to 
4,500. This number went on steadily increasing until 
it reached 8,271 in 1800, in which year the second 
edition of the Shipowners' Register contained par- 
ticulars of 7,754 vessels. During the following twelve 
months, however, the New Register Committee added 
a large number of ships to their Book, so that the 
next issue — that in 1801 — comprised even more vessels 
than were included in the Under\vriters' Register, 
there being 9,145 vessels in the latter and 9,540 in 
the former volume. 

Iron cables would appear to have been introduced 
about 18 1 3, vessels supplied with them having the 
words " Iron Cable " noted against their names ; and 
in 18 16 the letters " P. I. C." were employed to denote 
that the cables had been proved. There is, however, 
a note in the Register for 1824, to the effect that, in 
the case of vessels fitted with iron cables, and having 
none of hemp, the figure denoting the quality of the 
equipment was omitted ; but the question had become 
of such importance in 1828, that full instructions 
regarding the same were issued to the Surveyors of 
the Underwriters' Book. 

In glancing over the old volumes forming part of 
the collection of the Undenvriters' Register, we are 
reminded of the fact that, in the early part of the 
present century, steam navigation was practically 
unknown. 

It is not until 1822 that we find any record of a 



26 Annals of Lloyd' s Register. 

steamship in the Register. In the supplement to the 
Book bearing that date there occurs the entry of a 
steam packet, appropriately named the /ames Watt, 
of 294 tons, built at Greenock in 1821, and classed 
A 1. Although this is noteworthy, as being the first 
appearance of a steamer in the Register, we learn that 
for several years previously vessels propelled by 
steam had gradually come into public notice. 

Indeed, as far back as 1736, an invention "for 
carrying Vessels or Ships out of or into any Harbour, 
Port, or River, against Wind and Tide, or in a Calm," 
was patented by a Mr. Jonathan Hulls. His idea, 
however, does not appear to have been put into 
execution, although several attempts were made 
during the following fifty years to build a steamer. 
No result of any real importance was obtained until 
1787, when Mr. William Symington, at the instigation 
of Mr. Patrick Miller, an Edinburgh banker, fitted a 
steam-engine on board a large boat in the Forth and 
Clyde Canal, a trial of which took place and proved 
highly satisfactory. 

The distinction, however, of possessing the first 
practical steamboat was reserved for Lord Dundas, 
who, in 1 80 1, had a vessel constructed by Mr. 
Symington, which he named the Charlotte Dundas. 
This steamer, it is stated, towed two loaded vessels 
against a strong breeze, along the Forth and Clyde 
Canal to Port Dundas, a distance of 16J miles, in six 
hours. This vessel had to be laid up for several 
years, in consequence of the fear of the proprietors of 
the canal that the wash of the boat would injure the 
banks ! 




An7iah of Lloyd's Register. 27 

The idea, however, was now fairly started, and in 
181 1, Henry Bell, of Glasgow, after some years of 
experimenting, built a steamer, the well-known Comet, 
which carried passengers between ports on the Frith 
of Clyde. Other steamboats quickly followed, and 
amongst them one built in London in 18 14, which 
was tried on the canal near Limehouse, the Lord 
Mayor and other celebrities being on board at the 
time. Indeed, to such importance had the subject 
grown in 181 7 that a Committee of the House of 
Commons sat in that year to consider the means of 
preventing the mischief arising from explosions on 
board steamboats. As the result of their investiga- 
tions, regulations were issued which required all 
steamboats to be registered, and, in the case of 
passenger-vessels, the boilers — which it was thought 
necessary to prescribe should be of wrought-iron or 
copper — were to be submitted to inspection. Each 
boiler was required to be fitted with two safety- 
valves, and to be tested to three times the working 
pressure, which v/as not to exceed one-sixth the 
pressure the boiler was calculated to withstand. 

It would thus appear that the Committee of the 
Register Book were far behind the times in admitting 
steamers to classification; but from the year 1822, 
when the entry of the fames Watt was made, the 
number of classed steam vessels rapidly increased, the 
Book for 1827 containing 81 steamers, whilst that for 
1832 included no fewer than 100. Whatever may 
have been the Rules which guided the Register in the 
classification of steamers, they were evidently of a 
very imperfect nature, containing no provision for the 



28 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

periodical examination of such vessels. It is observed, 
for instance, that the last-named ship remained classed 
on the A character without having been surveyed 
from her entry in 1822 until the year 1830, after 
which, her term of classification having apparently 
expired, she disappeared from the Register Book. 

Amongst the curious records to be found in some 
of the Register Books of early date may be mentioned 
the following: — *'s.s.," small scantlings, in the Book 
for 181 2; "sheathed with zinc," in 1820, — this being 
the first notice of a vessel sheathed with this material ; 
and " sheathed with tanned leather," in 1831. 

It further appears that even at this early period it 
was not unusual for builders of wooden vessels to 
employ salt to preserve the timbers from dry-rot, 
even to the extent of boiling them in salt water. 

The beneficial effect of salt on timber was suf- 
ficiently exemplified in the frames of river craft 
employed in its conveyance, which, in many cases, 
after fifty years' service were found as sound as when 
first built. 

Coming down to more recent times, it appears that 
other experiments were made with the same object 
in view — viz., that of preventing the development of 
fungi in the tissues of the timber and planks through 
the fermentation of the natural juices in the wood. 
Sulphate of copper, sulphate of iron, creosote, and a 
variety of other substances were tried, but none 
proved so trustworthy as rock-salt. 




m 



.^ 




CHAPTER V. 




IHE concurrent existence of two Registers 
was, as might have been expected, very 
soon found to be productive of incon- 
venience and other unsatisfactory consequences. At 
a very early period in the century the General Ship- 
owners' Society had offered their mediation with a 
view to amalgamating the tw^o Registers, but without 
success. 

The widespread dissatisfaction, however, which 
had been yearly gaining strength, found expression in 
a succession of public meetings held by merchants 
and shipowners in 1823. In that year Mr. John 
Marshall, a shipowner of London, to whose untiring 
energy and sound judgment the movement owed a 
large measure of its success, brought the subject 
prominently before the annual general meeting of the 
Society of Shipowners, held at the London Tavern, 
on the nth December, with Mr. George Lyall in the 
chair. Mr. Marshall has left upon record a very full 
account of the proceedings at this and subsequent 
meetings, from which we gather that by this time 
both the Registries of Shipping had fallen largely 
into disrepute, and were travelling slowly to financial 



?l 



30 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

ruin. A fair idea of the revenues of the Societies 
may be formed from the following extract from one 
of his speeches : — 

"The Old Book has about 180 Subscribers, at eight 
guineas each, and twenty guineas each from the Royal 
Exchange and London Assurance Companies, which 
gives, as I assume, an income of ;^ 1,550; the New Book 
has about 126 Subscribers, at the same rate, and with two 
similar donations, realises about ;^ 1,080. If, instead of 
two, only one Book was published, and that on a principle 
which would combine general approbation, the aggregate 
number of Subscribers would, I conceive, be much in- 
creased, and the ability to pay fit and competent Sur- 
veyors and other necessary and efficient officers of the 
establishment, proportionably augmented. The number 
of vessels registered in the Old Book is, in round numbers, 
about 14,450 ; in the New one, about 13,950 ; and upon 
so numerous a Marine, a revenue might, in my opinion, 
be raised, without any undue pressure on its Proprietors, 
fully adequate to the expenses of an establishment, in 
all respects efficient for its object." 

Mr. Marshall boldly advocated radical changes in 
the entire organisation and administration of the 
Registries. He urged a change in the governing 
Committee, who, instead of being composed of 
gentlemen of one class only, ** self-elected and wholly 
irresponsible," should consist of representatives elected 
by Merchants, Underwriters, and Shipowners ; and 
he further demonstrated the necessity for a change 
in the system then regulating the classification of 
vessels, not by their intrinsic qualities, but by con- 
ditions of their age and place of build. He also 
disapproved of the decisions of the Surveyors being 
uncontrolled. 






Annals of Lloyd's Register. 31 

Amongst other evils of this system, complaint was 
made that it served to create and perpetuate an 
amount of tonnage for which the country was unable 
to find remunerative employment. Age being the 
great standard of classification, the effect was that, 
when a ship had outlived her first character, the 
Owner was induced immediately to sell her, from 
the impossibility in many trades of employing any 
vessel to the name of which the " talismanic charm 
of A 1 " was not appended. The owner would then 
substitute a new ship, thus increasing the previously- 
existing glut : whereas, if classification had been 
based upon intrinsic merit, the owner in many cases 
would have effectually repaired the vessel, which 
would then have remained on the first class. 

Upon the motion of Mr. Marshall, the meeting 
resolved unanimously that the present system of 
classing the shipping of the country was unfair 
in principle, injurious in its operations on the pro- 
perty of individuals and the efficiency and reputa- 
tion of the Mercantile Marine, and misleading to those 
concerned with it, to the injury of all persons con- 
nected therewith, and that, with the view of effecting 
a revision of the system, a Committee, representative 
of all the interests concerned, should be appointed to 
obtain the fullest information on the subject, and to 
consider, and subsequently report, the result of their 
deliberations. 

These resolutions received the unanimous confirma- 
tion of a large gathering of Merchants, Shipowners, 
and Underwriters, held under the presidency of Mr. 
Thomas Wilson, M.P., on the 22nd January, 1824, 



<i 



32 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

when the gentlemen to represent the Merchants and 
Shipowners on the Committee of Inquiry were elected, 
the Underwriters' nominees being left to the selection 
of the Committee of Lloyd's. 

But, having arrived at this stage, the difficulties 
only now began. The proposal to interfere in any 
way with the existing systems of classification met 
with most determined opposition from a large and 
important section of the members of Lloyd's, in- 
cluding the Committee of that body. Mr. Ben- 
jamin Shaw, the Chairman, stated, at the meeting 
held at Lloyd's on the i8th February, 1824, that 
" although the present mode [of classing ships] might 
not be free from objection, yet he thought that it had 
been found to answer very well for the Underwriters, 
and therefore he should look to any alteration of the 
system as calling for their vigilant attention. The 
Committee, in the exercise of that discretion on matters 
affectinpf the interests of that House which he con- 
sidered was vested in them, had given this important 
subject their most serious attention and consideration, 
since the resolutions above referred to had been 
officially communicated to them ; and they had come 
to the conclusion, that the proposal of that House 
concurring in the proposed investigation, by appoint- 
ing eight of the Members to form part of the Com- 
mittee of Inquiry, was a measure which they strongly 
deprecated, and they had therefore prepared a written 
Report of their views on the subject, which he wished 
might be read." This document, recommending the 
" Subscribers to abstain from acceding to the invita- 
tion," formed the subject of an animated discussion. 



Aiinals of Lloyd's Register. 33 

Mr. Marshall made a powerful speech, traversing 
the Report of the Committee of Lloyd's, in the course 
of which he said : — 

" All that is now asked for is inquiry ; and to make 
that efficient, and to secure the approbation and support 
of all, it is proposed that all the great interests con- 
cerned shall take part in the investigation, by each 
appointing an equal number of persons to constitute the 
Committee. That this House will, on this occasion, act 
worthy of its character, I entertain no doubt ; — cele- 
brated, as it is, from Pole to Pole for its liberality ; ever 
ready, as it has invariably shown itself, not only to concur, 
but to take the lead, in objects involving the welfare of 
the country, and more especially its maritime prosperity 
and greatness . . . Looking, sir, at the public spirit 
which has ever been conspicuous in the proceedings of 
this House — at the tone and impulse it has at different 
times imparted to the country, whenever its best feelings 
have been properly appealed to, — recollecting, too, that 
the very name of ' Lloyd's ' is regarded, not at home only, 
but also in every part of the world where the British name 
is known, as synonymous with everything that is liberal, 
just, public-spirited, and honourable, — I cannot, I will 
not, believe, unless the conviction is forced upon me by 
a decision to-day contrary to my expectations, that this 
House will on this occasion forget, or choose to lose 
sight of, those great principles of equity and justice 
towards others by which every community must regulate 
its conduct, or must retrograde in its character, its con- 
siderations, and just consequence." 

The result was, that the meeting resolved almost 
unanimously (there being but two dissentients) to 
nominate eight of the Members of Lloyd's to serve on 
the Committee of Inquir}-. Still another obstacle, 
however, was interposed. It was found, when the day 
of election arrived, that most of the twenty-four gentle- 

D 



men nominated on the above occasion had withdrawn 
their names from the ballot. 

Another general meeting was accordingly called. 
It was held on the 3rd March, 1824. The whole 
subject was rediscussed at great length and with much 
warmth, and, the opponents of the Committee of 
Inquiry demanding a ballot, Wednesday, the loth 
March, 1824, was fixed for that purpose, the poll " to 
commence at one and close at four o'clock," and to 
finally decide the question whether Lloyd's should or 
should not take part in the inquiry. Both parties 
exerted themselves to the utmost in the interval. 
The Committee of Lloyd's printed and freely circu- 
lated their Report on the subject, to which Mr. Marshall 
replied with a counter manifesto. Excitement ran 
high as the time approached for the ballot. Summing 
up his narrative of what occurred, Mr. Marshall 
says : — 

"The intense interest created by it, the feelings 
exhibited in its progress, and the extraordinary efforts 
made by most of those who so mistakenly exerted their 
opposition, will never be forgotten by the friends of 
inquiry, who on that day supported the moderate and 
reasonable proposition submitted to them. Suffice it to 
say. Reason triumphed ! no less than six Jmndred and 
seventy-nine Members of Lloyds voted on that occasion : 
almost every counting-house and coffee-house in the 
City being visited to procure the attendance of every 
Subscriber who could be found ; the result, however, was 
that the Resolution ' That Lloyd's do concur in nominat- 
ing eight of their Body to represent them in the Com- 
mittee of Inquiry,' was confirmed on the ballot by a 
majority of twenty-five — there being 352 for and 327 
against it ! " 



m^ 



xirr 





CHAPTER VI. 

HUS after repeated efforts and a most 
arduous contest the Committee of Inquiry 
was complete. The following were the 
members : — 

For London. 

MercJiants. Shipowners. Utiderwriters. 

George Palmer. George Lyall. James Lindsayjun. 

William Mitchell. George F. Young. Arthur Willis. 

Andrew Colvile. John W. Buckle. John Buck. 

John Hodgson. John Dawson. Jacob Mill. 

Henry Douglass. Nath. Domett. Robert Simpson. 

John Higgin. James Greig. John Whitmore. 

Robert Cotesworth. Thomas Spencer. David Carruthers. 

W. M. Alexander. Thomas Urquhart. Thomas Ashton. 

For the Outports. 

Liverpool Edward Hurry. 

Hull John Marshall. 

Glasgow Robert Douglas. 

Newcastle Thomas Forrest. 

Whitby Robert Chapman. 

Sjinderlafid Thomas Davison. 

Yarmouth John Diston Powles. 

Leith David Charles Guthrie. 

WhiteJiaven& Maryport John Simpson. 

D 2 



Mr. James Lindsay, jun., of Lloyd's, was appointed 
chairman of the Committee, whose investigation was 
of a most searching character, extending over a period 
of two years. Mr. Marshall, who it will be observed, 
sat on the Committee as the representative of Hull, 
records his conviction that " never did any Committee 
enter upon the duties imposed upon them with greater 
zeal, or a more anxious desire to acquit themselves 
faithfully of their obligations to the public, than the 
gentlemen just named ; never was there exhibited a 
more thorough absence of every personal or private 
object, or a more single-hearted and earnest endeavour 
to render their labours practically beneficial and accept- 
able to all whose interests they were called upon, to 
the best of their judgment, to secure." 

The Report presented by the Committee, dated the 
8th February, 1826, bears ample evidence of the pains 
taken to obtain the fullest information. Describing the 
steps adopted, the Committee state that they " spared 
no effort to obtain from every quarter interested in the 
inquiry, or possessing information calculated to eluci- 
date it, such testimony as should at once justify their 
recommendations and command public respect. The 
concurrent readiness with which their applications 
have been received has afforded them the advantage 
of obtaining the invaluable evidence and opinions of 
the Commissioners and Surveyors of His Majesty's 
Navy ; of the Master-builder of His Majesty's Dock- 
yard, Deptford ; the Principal Surveyor of Shipping 
to the Honourable East India Company; the Surveyors 
to the existing Registry Books; the Shipowners' 
Societies at Liverpool, Hull, Sunderland, Whitehaven, 




Annals of Lloyd's Register. 37 

and Yarmouth ; and of a considerable number of most 
respectable, impartial, and intelligent shipowners, 
brokers, agents to underwriters, shipbuilders, and 
others, whose long experience, high character, and 
extensive practical knowledge, convey abundant assur- 
ance, that, whatever may be the general opinion as to 
the recommendations framed on their testimony, by 
the Committee, the evidence itself must stand far 
beyond the reach of impeachment or suspicion." 

The Report then proceeds to a recapitulation of the 
main points of the evidence brought before the Com- 
mittee, from which it appears that the whole of the 
Merchant Shipping of the country was at that time 
classed in the Books printed for the avowed use of the 
Underwriters of Lloyd's, but supported by the general 
subscriptions of Merchants, Underwriters, Shipowners, 
and others ; that the circulation of these Books was 
not confined to the port of London nor even to Great 
Britain, but was extended over every part of the 
Globe, and that they had become the almost universal 
standard by which the Merchant was guided in his 
shipments, the Underwriter in his insurance, and the 
Passenger in undertaking his voyage — in short, that 
the character they affixed stamped value on the ship, 
and almost exclusively regulated the confidence re 
posed in her safety and sufficiency. 

Seeing that so much importance was attached to the 
Books, the Regulations of the governing bodies should 
have been on a correct basis, and the execution of these 
Regulations should have been entrusted to competent 
persons. An examination of the effect of the Books, 
however, showed them to be productive of many evils. 



38 Amials of Lloyd's Register. 

The principles adopted under the existing system of 
classification were "most fallacious and erroneous," 
while the " partial degree of actual survey required by 
the system " was " rendered practically nugatory by 
the insufficiency of the salaries paid to the Surveyors." 
After demonstrating the urgent necessity for termi- 
nating these "erroneous, unjust, and destructive" 
systems of classification, the Committee propounded a 
scheme for the establishment of a Registration Society 
on a proper basis, with a set of Rules for the Classifi- 
cation of Ships. 

Dealing first with the Constitution of the proposed 
Society, the Committee observe that — "it has been 
their object to provide for the fair and equal repre- 
sentation therein of all parties Immediately interested." 
Their proposal was as follows : — 

" That the future Superintendence of the Classifica- 
tion of Shipping be entrusted to a Committee in London, 
to be composed of thirty-two Members, consisting of 
six Merchants and six Shipowners of London, to be 
appointed by a General Meeting of Merchants and Ship- 
owners, respectively ; six Members of Lloyds, to be ap- 
pointed by that body ; one Representative by the Royal 
Exchange, London, Alliance, and Mutual Indemnity 
Assurance Associations, respectively ; and one Repre- 
sentative resident in London for each of the following 
Outports, viz. : Liverpool, Hull, Glasgow, Newcastle, 
Bristol, Whitby, Yarmouth, Leith, Whitehaven, and 
Sunderland. 

"That two Members of those appointed by the 
Shipowners, two of those deputed by the Merchants of 
London, and two of the Members of Lloyd's, should go 
out of office annually, but be eligible for re-election ; and 
the appointment of the Outport Representatives be during 
the pleasure of their Constituents. 



rJ' 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 39 

" Such Committee to appoint a Chairman and 
Deputy-Chairman, Secretary, and Assistants, and all the 
Surveyors both for London and the Outports ; and to be 
restricted in their proceedings to a conformity with the 
Rules and Regulations under which they may be ap- 
pointed ; but to have full power to make such Bye- Laws 
for their own government and proceedings as they may 
deem requisite, not being inconsistent with their original 
constitution." 

In regard to Classification, the Committee, believing 
that the evils which they described had been " chiefly 
produced by the want of an enlarged and well-organised 
system of survey, which has been rendered impracti- 
cable by the inadequacy of the means existing for the 
proper remuneration of independent and competent 
Surveyors," proposed to establish a rigid inspection, 
beginning with the construction of vessels, to be carried 
out by a large staff of Surveyors stationed throughout 
the country, and subject to the supervision of Principal 
Surveyors appointed in London, who were to make 
occasional visits to the outports. Very precise in- 
structions follow as to the conducting of the Surveyors' 
duties. 

Vessels were to be arranged in three different 
classes : the First Class to comprise vessels built 
under survey, the number of years assigned ranging 
from twelve to six, according to the materials used in 
the construction, and also ships built in the Colonies, 
which were surveyed on arrival in England ; the 
Second Class to contain ships which, being from age 
no longer entitled to the First Class, were still found 
competent to carry dry and perishable cargoes to any 
part of the world ; the Third Class to include vessels 



which, although unfit for the conveyance of dry car- 
goes, were perfectly safe and capable of carrying 
cargoes not subject to sea damage. 

While recommending the institution of the survey 
of vessels during construction, the Report does not 
suggest the adoption of any specific modes of con- 
struction, nor propose any scale for regulating the 
scantlings of new vessels, leaving full scope to the 
discretion of the shipbuilder and shipowner in these 
respects. Provision was to be made for the restora- 
tion of vessels, upon proper survey, to the first class, 
after the expiration of the period of years first 
assigned. 

As regards the expenditure that would be involved 
in the establishment and equipment of a Register ot 
Shipping upon the liberal basis proposed, the Com- 
mittee estimated that the charges would amount in 
the aggregate to about ;^ 13,700 per annum, composed 
of £7,"Joo in respect of the salaries of thirty-four 
Surveyors, — the individual amounts ranging from;!^6oo 
to ;^i50, and, in the case of a few of the smaller 
ports, to ;^75, — and about ^6,000 for the expenses of 
Secretary, Printing, Committee, Travelling, &c. In 
fixing the amount of salaries to be paid to the Sur- 
veyors, the Committee pointed out the absolute 
necessity of the sum being sufficient to ensure the 
services of men of intelligence, activity, firmness, 
and integrity ; and added that, to the absence of 
regular and constant professional supervision, by 
properly-selected persons, the abuses and evils of 
the existing system had been principally traced. 

Coming to deal with the important question of the 



zrT 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 41 

best mode of raising funds adequate to meet the 
expenses of the system recommended for adoption, 
the Committee, while preferring to leave this problem 
to the wisdom of the General Meeting, record their 
decided conviction that all expectation of raising a 
sum sufficient to cover the estimated expenditure 
" must, except under the sanction and authority of 
Parliamentary provision, prove visionary and hope- 
less." It was therefore proposed to establish the 
Society by means of a subsidy from the Government, 
the charge on the public exchequer to be met, it was 
suggested, by a trifling duty on tonnage or a small 
addition to the existing duty on Marine Insurance. 
The Committee at the same time admit that the 
" direct interposition of public support would, in all 
probabilit}', transfer to the Executive Government the 
superintendence of a system imperatively requiring 
for its effective administration the aid of mercantile 
and professional knowledge and experience." 

The fear of the Committee that a Register Society 
founded upon voluntary principles would not be able 
to raise funds equal to the establishment and mainte- 
nance of the system of classification which they 
sketched out, although shown by later experience to be 
groundless, was not so unnatural, considering the state 
of financial collapse into which both of the existing 
Registries had fallen. It is not at all unlikely that to 
the Committee's halting, inconclusive treatment of 
this question, upon which all else hinged, was 
largely due the fate that immediately befell their 
Report. 

This document was presented at the general 



r 



meeting of all concerned held on the ist June, 1826, 
on which occasion Mr. Thomas Wilson, M.P., was in 
the chair. At this meeting a letter was read from 
the Board of Trade, which stated, " that the Board 
approved highly of the proposed alterations, and were 
of opinion that it would give rise to great improve- 
ment in the naval architecture of the country ; and 
that the Lords of their Committee would be disposed 
to assist in carrying the proposed regulations into 
effect, in any manner which might, on subsequent 
discussion, be deemed advisable." Beyond this offer, 
the Board declined to make any positive announce- 
ment which might be held to commit the Government. 
A subsequent meeting was appointed to be held 
to discuss the proposals. The consideration of the 
subject, however, was from one cause and another 
adjourned from time to time without any deci-sion 
being arrived at ; until, in consequence, as would 
appear, of the sudden death of two of the principal 
leaders of the movement, and of the opposition offered 
to the scheme from some quarters, and the indifference 
manifested in others, the supporters of the proposed 
system were induced to desist from pursuing it 
farther at that time. 




'11 



r. 





CHAPTER VII. 

EVERAL years elapsed before any effectual 
steps were taken in furtherance of the 
Object, but the gradual decay of the two 
Registries greatly strengthened the position of those 
who advocated the entire reorganisation of the exist- 
ing systems of classification. 

The Shipowners' Book had, it is stated, been 
carried on at an annual loss, and the effect of the 
competition appears to have told upon the finances of 
its older rival, as will be seen from a statement pub- 
lished with the Green Book for 1828-29, which runs as 
follows : — 

"LLOYD'S REGISTRY OF SHIPPING, 

"Castle Court, Birchix Laxe, 

"/afiuary, 1829. 

"The Committee beg leave to remind the Sub- 
scribers that when this Society was established, in the 
year 1760, the Annual Subscription was Twelve Guineas. 

" At the end of Half a Century, their funded Pro- 
perty having increased to ;^ 12,000 Stock, the Price of 
the Book was reduced one-third, viz., from Twelve to 






44 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

Eight Guineas ; but the Expenses for the last Twenty 
Years having exceeded the Income by nearly ;^5oo per 
Annum, and the Stock now remaining amounting to 
only ;^2,ooo, the Committee are under the necessity of 
raising the Price of the Book this Year to Ten Guineas. 
" Nearly Ten Thousand Vessels are surveyed every 
Year ; the Expense of Survey, by competent Judges, 
cannot be reduced under the present Salaries, which 
exceed ;^i,ooo per annum, rather under 2s. i\d. each 
vessel." 

The impossibility of reducing the salaries of the 
Surveyors will not be disputed when it is mentioned 
that the two principal Surveyors in London were 
receiving only ;^250 per annum between them at this 
period ! 

It is worthy of notice that in this announce- 
ment we find the first assumption of the name of 
" Lloyd's," as prefixed to a Register of Shipping — 
preceding books having been styled "Registers" only. 

In 1833 we find both of the Registries in so 
desperate a state that it was not expected they 
would be able to carry on their operations be- 
yond another year or two. The " Special Committee 
on the affairs of Lloyd's," fearing that under these 
circumstances the community might be left without 
a Book, and with the object of rendering the in- 
spection of shipping more efficient, appointed a Sub- 
Committee to confer with the Committees of the two 
bodies, and endeavour to effect a union between them. 
On the 14th August, 1833, a meeting was held in 
the Merchant Seamen's Office, of which the following 
copy of a minute, signed by the members of the 
" Special Committee," now exists : — 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 45 

"The Sub-Committee to whom it was referred at 
the last meeting to confer with the Committees of the 
two Register Books beg to report that they met for 
that purpose, in this office, on Tuesday, the 13th inst, 
the following gentlemen on behalf of the Red Book, 
viz. : — 

Mr. Lancaster, Mr. Hall, 

Mr. Palmer, Mr. Harrison, 

Mr. Willis ; 

And the following on behalf of the Green Book, viz. : — 

Mr. Harford, Mr. Luke, 

Mr. Kerr, ■ Mr. Carruthers, 

Mr. Dawson, Mr. W. G. Shedden. 

And that, after much discussion, the following resolu- 
tions were carried unanimously, with an understanding 
that, if any obstacle should arise on the part of the 
Shipowners' Society to carrying the same into effect, 
an early communication thereof should be made to this 
Committee by the Committee of the Red Book. 

" 1st. That it is not practicable to carry on the two 
Register Books as at present circumstanced. 

"2nd. That in the opinion of this meeting it is desir- 
able that an union of the Committees of the two Registers 
take place for the purpose of establishing one good and 
efficient Register. — 

"(Signed) R. Dewar, 
J. Mill, 
S. Smith, 
J. Simpson, 

W. F. S.\DLER." 

Mr. Sadler, writing at the same date to Mr. Lan- 
caster, Chairman of the Red Book, on behalf of the 
Special Committee on the affairs of Lloyd's, expressed 
their earnest hope that he would, in conjunction with 
the Committee of the other Book, take early measures 
for carrying into effect a resolution which appeared to 



the Special Committee to be of vital importance to 
the shipping and commercial interests of the country. 

No opposition being offered by the General Ship- 
owners' Society to the proposed fusion of the existing 
Books, a meeting of the Committees of the two 
Registries was held on Thursday, the loth October, 
1833, at the River Dee office, over the Royal Ex- 
change, at which the under - mentioned gentlemen 

were present : — 

George Palmer, Charles Harford, 

Nathaniel Domett, David Carruthers, 

J. W. Buckle, Thomas Chapman, 

George Allfrey, Joseph Somes, 

John Luke, J. Dawson, 

W. N. Lancaster, Crawford D. Kerr, 

Thomas Hall, Henry Cheape, 

Mr. Palmer was appointed Chairman, while Mr. 
Chapman consented to act as Honorary Secretary, 
discharging the duties of this office during the period 
covered by the first six meetings of the Committee. 

It was then resolved to form the Members of the 
two Committees into a Joint Committee for carrying 
the proposed union into effect, the principal details 
of the scheme being remitted to the consideration 
of a Sub-Committee. The first outline of a Consti- 
tution is contained in the Minutes of the second 
meeting of the United Committee on the 24th October, 
at which the following resolutions were passed : — 

"That a Society be established for obtaining an 
accurate classification of the Mercantile Marine of the 
United Kingdom, and of the Foreign vessels trading 
thereto, and that a Book be annually printed, to be 
called ' The Register Book of British and Foreign 
Shipping.' 



'W! 




Annals of Lloyd's Register. 47 



"That all persons subscribing the sum of Three 
Guineas annually be Members of the Society, and en- 
titled (for their own use) to a copy of the Register Book. 

"That the affairs of the Society be conducted by 
a Committee of twenty-one jNIembers, who shall elect 
from amongst themselves a Chairman and Deputy-Chair- 
man, and be empowered to fill up vacancies, and that 
five be the quorum. 

" That such of the present Members of the Two 
Committees as shall signify their assent thereto, shall 
be Members of the New Committee." 

Further regulations were also adopted respecting 
the subscriptions of Marine Insurance Companies and 
public establishments, the appointment of Surveyors, 
and the scale of Fees to be charged. Respecting 
the classification of vessels, it was decided to adopt, 
with some alterations, the Rules for Classification laid 
down in the printed Report of the Committee of 1824, 
the first " Instructions to Surveyors" drawn up being 
also founded upon the recommendations of that docu- 
ment. These Rules formed the subject of a confer- 
ence between Sub-Committees of the projected Society 
and of the General Shipowners' Society, comprising 
the following gentlemen : — 

Represe7itmg tJie Registry Committee. 

Arthur Willis, B. McGhie, 

Charles Harford, John Luke, 

Henry Nelson, Thomas Chapman, 

Nathaniel Domett, George Allfrey, 
Joseph Somes. 

Representing the General Shipowners' Society. 

George F. Young, Robert Barry, 

Octavius Wigram, Robert Carter, 

William Tindall, Henry Buckle. 



^^~ 



The Rules then underwent very material altera- 
tions, and in their amended form were adopted at 
a meeting of the United Committee of the Registry 
on the 17th January, 1834, and ordered to be pub- 
lished in the form of a " Prospectus of the Plan for 
the Establishment of a New Register Book of British 
and Foreign Shipping," From this document it 
appears that the existing Committee were to be 
considered merely as a Provisional Committee for 
arranging and completing the establishment of the 
Society on the following basis : — 

All persons subscribing the sum of three guineas 
annually were to be Members of the Society, and 
entitled, for their own use, to a copy of the Register 
Book ; the subscription of Public Establishments being 
fixed at ten guineas, with the exception of that of 
the four Marine Insurance Companies in London, 
namely, the Royal Exchange, London, Alliance, and 
Mutual Indemnity, which had each agreed to give an 
annual subscription of one hundred guineas. 

The superintendence of the affairs of the Society 
was to be entrusted to a Committee in London, to be 
composed of twenty-four Members, consisting of an 
equal proportion of Merchants, Shipowners, and Under- 
writers, and in addition the Chairman of Lloyd's and 
the Chairman of the General Shipowners' Society, for 
the time, were to be ex-officio Members of the Com- 
mittee. 

The Provisional Committee were in the first in- 
stance to appoint the eight Members constituting the 
mercantile portion of the Permanent Comm.ittee ; the 
Committee of the General Shipowners' Society to 



^X-- 




Annals of Lloyd's Register. 49 

elect the eight Members constituting the portion of 
Shipowners ; and the Committee of Lloyd's the eight 
Members to represent the Underwriters. 

The vacancies thereafter arising through the annual 
retirement, by rotation, of six of the Members, namely, 
two of each of the constituent parts of the Committee 
(who would be eligible for re-election), were to be 
filled up by the election of two Shipowners and one 
Merchant by the Committee of the General Ship- 
owners' Society, and two Underwriters and one 
Merchant by the Committee of Lloyd's. 

The Committee were to have full power to make 
such Bye- Laws for their own government and pro- 
ceedings as they might deem requisite, not being in- 
consistent with the oriofinal Rules and Resfulations 
under which the Society was established. 

After stating the conditions attaching to the 
appointment of Surveyors to the Society, the Pro- 
spectus proceeds to explain the general principles 
which the Committee had determined to adopt for 
their guidance in the future classification of ships, and 
which are sufficiently clear from the first resolution 
under this head, namely : — 

"That the characters to be assigned shall be, as 
nearly as circumstances will permit, a correct indication 
of the real and intrinsic quality of the ship ; and that 
the same shall no longer be regulated, as heretofore, by 
the incorrect standard of the port of building, nor on the 
decision of the Surveyors ; but will henceforward be in 
all cases finally affixed by the Committee, after a due 
inspection of the Reports of the Surveyors and the docu- 
ments which may be submitted to them." 

In regard to the funds of the Society, which it was 

E 



50 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

provided should be under the authority and control of 
the Committee, it was decided that the revenue should 
not depend solely upon the subscriptions to the 
Register Book, as had evidently been the case with 
the preceding Register Societies. The subscription 
to the Register Book, it will be observed, was fixed 
at a very low figure, but, in addition, fees were to be 
charged to shipowners for the survey and classifi- 
cation of vessels according to an approved scale. 

It is evident, from the records of the Provi- 
sional Committee, that they at one time contemplated 
the necessity of receiving some pecuniary assistance 
from the Government in furtherance of the objects of 
the Society. Mr. George Lyall, M.P., a member of the 
Committee, was deputed to seek an interview with the 
President and Vice-President of the Board of Trade, 
and to enter fully into an explanation of the intended 
proceedings of the Society, and urge the claims of the 
Society to national support. When it appeared from 
this gentleman's inquiries on the subject that no expec- 
tation of pecuniary assistance from the public funds 
could be relied upon, it became a serious question 
with the Committee whether sufficient confidence 
could be placed in their prospects to enable the 
Society to proceed with the means that might now 
be calculated upon. 

A Sub-Committee of Finance was specially ap- 
pointed to investigate the expected resources upon 
which dependence might be placed for proceeding with 
the proposed undertaking; and their report, which 
contains an elaborate estimate based upon the ex- 
perience of the two preceding Registers and the total 




Amials of Lloyd's Re^sier. 51 

tonnage of the country, concluded with the opinion 
that the Committee were justified, under all the cir- 
cumstances, in proceeding with the scheme. 

An application to the Government to obtain 
the privilege of transmitting reports of surveys 
from the outport Surveyors free of charge in 
those days of heavy postage proved equally un- 
availing. The Committee's appeal to Shipowners 
and Underwriters, however, for contributions to the 
Society, with the view of expediting the appointment 
of Surveyors and the arrangements necessary for the 
issue of the new Book, was productive of better 
results. The Subscribers to Lloyd's, at a general 
meeting, upon the motion of Mr. Arthur Willis, a 
member of that body and also of the Provisional 
Committee, unanimously voted a sum of ;^ 1,000 from 
their funds in aid of the Society, and individual Under- 
writers contributed over £"joo ; while, in addition to 
the annual subscription of 100 guineas which the 
London Assurance Corporation and the Alliance 
Marine Assurance Company had agreed upon, they 
each gave a donation of 50 guineas, and the West 
India Dock Company one of 30 guineas. It should 
be mentioned that the amount received from Lloyd's 
was repaid to that Institution a few years afterwards, 
when the funds of the Society permitted. 

The Provisional Committee continued to manage 
the affairs of the Society until October, 1834 — framing 
the Rules for Classification, selecting and appointing 
Surveyors and other officers, examining the reports 
of survey sent in by the Surveyors, classifying the 
ships for entry in the Register Book, and making all 

E 2 



52 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

necessary arrangements for the preparation and issue 
of the Book. At first the Committee met two or three 
times a week, but the pressure of business had become 
so great by June, 1834, that on the 27th of that month 
it was decided that the General Committee should 
" be convened to meet on Tuesday next, the ist July, 
at eleven o'clock, and that from and after that day the 
Committee will sit daily' for the transaction of busi- 
ness. Having brought their labours to a satisfactory 
termination by the production of the first edition 
of " Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign 
Shipping," they dissolved on the 21st of October, 
1834, and handed over their trust to the Permanent 
Committee, which had by that time been appointed. 














^p 




CHAPTER VIII. 

HE Permanent Committee was composed of 
the under-mentioned gentlemen : — 



Merchants 
{Appointed by tJie Provisional Committed). 
T. W. Buckle. Crawford D. Kerr. 

T. A. Curtis. George Lyall, M.P. 

Thomson Hankey, jun. Alexander Mitchell. 
George Hanson. Patrick M. Stewart, M.P. 

Shipowners 
{Elected by tJie Committee of tJie General Shipowners^ Society). 
Thomas Benson, Joseph Somes. 

Nathaniel Domett. William Tindall. 

Richard Drew, Thomas Ward. 

B. A. McGhie. George F, Young, M,P. 

Underwriters 
{Elected by tJie Com^nittee of Lloyds). 
George Allfrey, William Marshall. 

David Carruthers. John Robinson. 

Thomas Chapman. R. H. Shepard, 

Henry Cheape, Arthur Willis. 

C/tairman of Lloyds. 
George R, Robinson, M.P. 

C/iairman of tlie General Shipowners Society. 
Octavius Wigram. 



54 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



Mr. David Carruthers was elected Chairman of 
the Permanent Committee, and Mr. Crawford D. 
Kerr the Deputy-Chairman. For a period of about 
two months, in 1833, Mr. Chapman had served as the 
Honorary Secretary to the Provisional Committee, 
and, as will be seen, his name appears in the list 
of the Permanent Committee of 1834-35. But upon 
Mr. Kerr's retirement, through ill - health, Mr. 
Chapman was elected on the 9th April, 1835, to 
the office of Deputy-Chairman, and on the 25th June 
of the same year, shortly after the death of Mr. 
Carruthers, he was appointed Chairman of the Society. 
Mr. Nathaniel Symonds, who acted as Secretary 
to the Committee until January, 1837, was then 
succeeded by Mr. Charles Graham, who had previously 
been in the service of the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty. 

We have now reached the period when the present 
Reofister Book came into existence, and it will be of 
interest to pause here and consider the circumstances 
of the British Mercantile Marine at this time, especially 
in their relation to the Society's earliest operations. 
In 1834 a vessel of 500 tons was considered large, 
and the tonnage built in each of the several preceding 
years bears but a very small proportion to that of 
to-day. For instance, there were built — 




Year. 


In the United 
Kingdom. 


In British 
Colonies. 


In 1830 
„ 1831 
» 1832 


750 vessels. 
760 „ 
759 » 


367 vessels. 
376 „ 
221 



Anftals of Lloyd's Register, 



DO 



Of the 750 vessels built in 1830, the tonnage was 
composed as follows : — 

About 210 were under 50 tons. 
200 „ 100 „ 

„ 150 „ 200 „ 

» 150 ,, 300 „ 

„ 30 „ 400 „ 
and 10 above 500 „ 

The large proportion of vessels built in the Colonies 
— chiefly North American — is also an item worthy of 
attention in examining these statistics. 

Of the vessels belonging to the United Kingdom in 
1830 the following is a summary of the tonnages : — 



50 tons and under . 


50 tons to 100 


100 „ 


200 


200 „ 


300 


300 „ 


400 


400 „ 


500 


500 „ 


800 


800 „ 


1,000 


,200 and I 


jpwards 



6,542 


ships. 


5,212 


w 


3>942 


» 


1,948 


1> 


969 


» 


329 


l> 


no 


n 


15 


n 


43 


i> 



Total 



19,110 



In addition to these there were 4,547 vessels of 
330,227 tons registered in the British Colonies. 

In 1833 we find that the Underwriters' Register, 
or Green Book, contained 16,615 ships, and that the 
number recorded in the rival Shipowners' Register, 
or Red Book, was 15,670. 

It need hardly be said that all this tonnage was of 
wood, as no iron ship appears in the Register Book 
until the year 1837. 



ft 



56 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

The Register Book as issued in 1834 — a reprint 
of a page of which appears on the opposite side — 
contained a record of all vessels of 50 tons and 
upwards registered in the United Kingdom, whether 
classed or not, and the following particulars, as far 
as they could be ascertained, were given : — The 
name and description of the vessel, the name of 
the master, the tonnage, the port and year of build, 
the name of the owner, the port of registry, and 
the classification, if assigned, together with the port 
at which the vessel had been surveyed. There 
were also abbreviated descriptions of the material 
of which the vessel was built, and of the repairs 
executed. 

The form and arrangement of the Book, as deter- 
mined in 1834, remained practically unaltered for 
many years. The first volume necessarily contained 
but a small proportion of classed to unclassed vessels, 
as characters were assigned only after survey by the 
Society's Officers. In this respect, and also as regards 
the amount of the information it contained, the new 
Register Book would not bear comparison with the 
issue of either of its predecessors ; and there appear 
to have been many complaints of vessels being entered 
in it without a class. The reason for including ships 
not classed is obvious. It was impossible, under 
the rules adopted by the Committee, to assign a 
character to the vessels already afloat until they had 
been surveyed and reported upon by the Society's 
Surveyors. If the volume had contained only the 
particulars of the vessels which had been classed 
by the Committee up to the time of its issue, it 



No. 



Ships. 



Masters. 



Tom. 



426 Sion Hill Sr jRichards 163 

282 



Ale; 



BUILD. 



Wbete. When. 



i Port 
Owners, belonging 
to. 



Clauifi 
' catkn 



Destined 
Voyage. 



%* Si 



1828| IlThoraafVVatrfrd Liv. ITnibroj JEX 



London 



Qubec 

7j'Sir Alexander T.Cuthill 
I Hammond 

8' M«Ken- Williams 

j zie Bg I 

9j— Boucher WLj. Ra 
rey fc" 1 

4S0- Charles For J. 

bes S C.Jl i (. j I I Urerpool 

1 M'Car- !j. Walker' lS8Bklrsd 1821J. WklkerlLondon Lon.CG.H 



124iStrnwy 1818W. Coffin Cardiff Cff. Watrfrd 

ND.wATS<is30 



^1 

71 



LJ. Ray ! 88j nfTacbl828Swainst'iilfr'cmb Liv. CoMtf 7 Al 
iT.Waaiey; \ RB-Pi^^i „ ,, 'Liverpool^, j ^y 

J. Leslie 13641 Abrdnj 1824 Boothby<$London Fal. ) ^^ 



A 1 



tfayBg r.&C34^ 
-^-■^ '^ il .l Ti Hill 



Itrp.at : 
RqPirrnM 1818 



neSr f.&s.32| j ,O.JB.B. E.&iFnD.20 

SI Ogilby |J. Burt ; 123LofWt 1827 M'Neice 



Sr 



C.28,1 
-Scott i D.J.Wiif J 1^ 



— Edward Ba,BenneU 
nks 



s' Hamil- 

! ton S f.Ovs.U 



44oi-- 



— Paget 



r . _, 

1| — Francis Bur 
I -ton S ,,&C 
2 Drake .Si G.Nichols 1 13 



I 



Restored 1834,5 Y re 8 



Anstrth f .th i\Jalaga> 



72 
105 
180 



A. Bruce 

Norwood 

R. Lundj 483 

Newbolt '471 

i 

R. Martin- 482 



; Stmyei.*el C.2 >j)t33 
3 — George Mu. 

-rray Bk r.&s.32 
4, — Henry Stan J. Johnson 



Lo'ids 



WDunbar 41l|Quebc)l8-^|I>. Gibb 
Plvn. 



!H;>iJT.'\rari1 



h|l82dCapt. 



iC 



>4)t33 lh.c. irp.ii I 

X Beverly: 327P.E.Isl 1829 W. L 
B.B.kY.P. 
85 



ens 



j -hope 
5! — Humphrey 



J. Brown 



65 

366 



Davy 
6— James Cock G. Allen 
-bnm j , 

■^ Kempt J.Tatrick' 304 

f ('■^^ 



— JofmBerresy . Collin I 292 
fortl 

9 ByngBgjW. Cram \ 141 

C.32 



Franklin 

fw C. 



Mitch'nsnj 244 
J-Comsr| 



N.Sn iB^n J. T^'ait 



B.liJ. 



Poole 
Sth*vk 



A:. /•. 



Irp.S^ 



1832 Fryer&Co 



UUo BuitonjLc 



London Lou.C.G.H.jlO 

fcondorr*- 

London ; 

Aberd'n, 

London' 

Brdlgtn UiA. A-.. or 

London | 

London ! 

Liverp'l |Lir. Afiica 

Plym'thiFal.Prtsujh 

Liverp'l Liv. Bathrst 

London 

Nwcastl. 

London i 

Dundee Pun. Baljie 

! 

Liverp'li 

Poole iPooNwfl'ndlO 



A I 



Ml 



9 



^1 



u 



£1 

f 



NwcastlLiv. MutTiil J 
^verpl i 



A 1 

A.I 

.4 



/ace p. 56. 



A7tnals of Lloyd's Register. 57 

would have been of but small dimensions, and of little 
service to the public. The succeeding editions of 
the work, however, bear testimony to the extensive 
scale of the Society's operations. During the first 
five years of its existence no fewer than 15,000 
surveys of vessels had been held, and the reports 
thereof dealt with by the Committee. The decision, 
therefore, to omit, upon reprinting the book in 1838, 
vessels which had never been surveyed and classed, 
made no appreciable difference in the bulk of the 
volume. 

The Rules and Regulations as finally adopted by 
the Provisional Committee, and in the framing of 
which Mr. G. F. Young, M.P., and Mr. William 
Tindall took a leading part, treated of the construction 
of wood ships in brief and general terms, and contained 
but slight reference to the building of wood steamers, 
which until that time had been comparatively few in 
number. There was little direction laid down beyond 
the description of timber to be used in the construction 
of vessels for the respective terms of classification, and 
the scantlings of the principal parts of a vessel. Four 
different grades of classification were provided, based 
substantially upon the Rules drawn up by the Mixed 
Committee of Inquiry in 1826, the methods of distin- 
guishing the classes previously in vogue being followed 
by the new Society. 

The letter A indicated the first description of the 
First Class, which included ships that had not passed 
a prescribed age, and were kept in the highest state 
of efficiency. 

The character ^ denoted the second description 



5 8 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

of the First Class, and applied to vessels which had 
passed the prescribed age, and had not undergone 
the repairs required for Continuation or Restoration 
on the A character, but were still in a condition for 
the safe conveyance of dry and perishable cargoes. 

The letter E designated the Second Class, com- 
prising ships which, although unfit for carrying dry 
cargoes, were perfectly safe for the conveyance, to all 
parts of the world, of cargoes not in their nature 
liable to sea damage. 

The Third Class, denoted by the letter I, included 
vessels which were good in constitution and fit for 
the conveyance on short voyages (not out of Europe) 
of cargoes not subject to sea damage. 

The condition of the anchors, cables, and stores, 
when satisfactory, was indicated by the figure 1 ; when 
unsatisfactory, by the figure 2. 

New ships, to be entitled to rank in the first 
description of the first class, for the full period pro- 
vided by the Rules, must have been inspected, while 
building, by the Society's Surveyors. The prescribed 
examination was very like that now prescribed for 
vessels building under " ordinary survey " ; which 
is to say that they were examined at certain stages 
of their construction, and not continuously, as is 
required in the present day for vessels building under 
" special survey." 

As regards vessels already in existence at the 
establishment of the new Register, and which, as 
intimated, were required to undergo a careful 
survey at the hands of the Society's officers prior 
to classification, it was stated that " they would be 



classed agreeably to the descriptions laid down for 
the building of new ships, unless on such survey there 
were found sufficient cause to assign them a less 
period." 

But while a sufficiently favourable opportunity was 
thus afforded to owners of existing ships to secure a 
class equal to that which would have been granted if the 
vessels had been built under survey, the same latitude 
was not extended to those built subsequently to the 
promulgation of the Rules. In the case of such 
vessels, one year was to be deducted from the class 
which would othenvise have been awarded; and in 
1842 this regulation was so altered that a vessel not 
built under survey could be classed no higher than 
10 A. 

So early as 1834 the importance of keeping wood 
vessels dry during construction was understood, and 
an extra year was added to the period for which 
they might be classed, provided they were built under 
an efficient roof, and twelve months were occupied in 
their construction. 

After the expiration of the term of years originally 
assigned to vessels on the A character, they could be 
restored to that grade, under certain restrictions, at 
any age, if found upon surveys of a most searching 
character to be in a satisfactory condition. Indeed, 
the requirements of the Rules in this respect were far 
in excess of any now in operation, and it is perhaps 
somewhat surprising that this severity does not appear 
to have raised complaints from any quarter at the 
time. The Rules on this point were, however, in 
accordance with the best practice of the period, as 



6o Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

exemplified by the ordinary routine of the East India 
Company in the periodical examination of their 
vessels. 

If a vessel was not restored to the A class, she 
lapsed into the second description of the first class, 
designated JE, provided her condition was sufficiently 
good ; it being considered that vessels of this descrip- 
tion were fit to carry dry and perishable cargoes. 
Restored vessels also lapsed into the J^ class upon 
the same conditions. 

The Rules issued in 1834 contained precise regu- 
lations regarding the survey of steamers, the number 
of such vessels having been gradually Increasing for 
several years prior to that date. It was provided 
that they should be surveyed twice In each year ; and 
that at the above directed surveys a certificate from 
some competent Master Engineer should be produced, 
a notation to this effect being made in the Register 
Book. 

It is worthy of note that, under the provisions of 
the Rules in force at this time, and for about twenty 
years later, the scantlings allowed for wood steamers 
under 300 tons were required to be only equal to 
two-thirds of those prescribed for sailing ships of the 
same tonnage, the proportion being altered to three- 
fourths in steamers of larger size. 

To conduct the surveys prescribed by the Rules 
of the new Committee, a staff of Surveyors was 
appointed, numbering sixty-three in all, of whom 
thirteen were exclusively the servants of the Society, 
and these were distributed at the different ports in 
the United Kingdom, in proportion to the average 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



6i 



amount of tonnag"e built at or sailinof from the district. 
The exclusive Surveyors were appointed thus : — 



District. 


NlTMBER OF 

Surveyors. 


Bristol 

Glasgow, Greenock, and ports on ) 

the Clyde j 

Hull, Gainsborough, Goole, Selby, ) 

Thorn, and Grimsby ... ... j 

Leith and ports in the Frith of) 

Forth j 

Liverpool 

London 

Newcastle and Shields 

Sunderland 

Total 


I 
I 

2 

I 

2 

••• 3 
I 
2 

13 



These Surveyors were of two classes, known as 
" Shipwright Surveyors " and " Nautical Surveyors." 
The former were practical shipwrights, who had 
served an apprenticeship in the usual manner ; whereas 
the latter were shipmasters possessing an acquaint- 
ance with the construction and repairs of ships. The 
primary duty of the Nautical Surveyors appears to 
have been to attend to the survey of vessels afloat, 
and that of the Shipwright Surveyors the inspection 
of vessels while building, while both officers joined 
in the surveys on old vessels in dry dock ; but this 
division of labour could only be adopted in the prin- 
cipal ports which had surveyors of both classes. 

The duty of classifying ships upon the Surveyors' 
reports was at first undertaken by the whole Com- 
mittee; but in 1 835 it was delegated to Sub-Committees. 



62 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

The earliest list of these Sub-Committees is dated 
April 9th, 1835. 

The changes made in the Rules of the Society 
during the earlier years of its existence were not very 
considerable. In 1837, a new class, *^ in red, 
was introduced, to represent vessels of a superior 
character to those previously given the M. class, the 
red colour having been probably chosen to distinguish 
the vessels readily from others classed with the same 
letter in the Book. Ships so classed were fit to carry 
dry and perishable cargoes to and from all parts of 
the world, and had lapsed from the A class without 
having completed such repairs as were neces- 
sary for restoration or continuation to the first 
class. 

In the year 1837 the Rule for the continuation of 
ships on the highest class was first given. This 
continuation was not to exceed one-third the number 
of years originally assigned, and was to begin from 
the expiration of the original class, and not from the 
date of survey. The opening out of the vessel was, it 
seems, left to the judgment of the Surveyor, and not 
carefully prescribed as at present. This was the only 
Rule in operation under which a vessel was eligible for 
continuation on the A 1 character until 1863, when, by 
a more stringent examination of the vessel's frame, 
an extension of two-thirds the original class was 
p-ranted. These two terms of continuation — viz., the 
one-third and the two-third terms — were supplemented, 
in 1 88 1, by a third Rule, which provided that the 
vessel might be again continued at the end of the 
ordinary continuation period, such continuation not 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



63 



to exceed one-third the number of years originally 
assigned. 

In 1837, carefully - prepared Tables were first 
introduced into the Rules, specifying the different 
periods of classification which would be assigned by 
the Committee to vessels built of certain different 
kinds of wood, and stating the several parts of the 
vessel in which these woods might be used for the 
respective terms of years. 



v^Cv^*v • 





CHAPTER IX. 

||HE new Society was now, in 1834, an accom- 
plished fact, and although, perhaps, it did not 
fully realise in all respects the perfect ideal 
of a National Registry of Shipping, it was unques- 
tionably an immense improvement upon the previously 
existing Registries. Now, for the first time, the 
classification of the Mercantile Marine was entrusted 
to a large Committee directly representative, not of 
one section only, but of the whole of the interests 
concerned, namely, the Merchant, the Underwriter, 
and Shipowner ; and now also, for the first time, was 
there a serious and systematic attempt made to put 
into actual practice the principle of assigning the 
character of a vessel according to her intrinsic 
merits. 

Coming after the promulgation of a scheme of repre- 
sentation drawn on such broad and liberal lines as 
those laid down in the Report of the Committee of 
Inquiry in 1826, it was, perhaps, scarcely to be expected 
that the constitution of the Committee of Manage- 
ment of the new Registry, although infinitely superior 




Annals of Lloyd's Register. 65 

to that of the Boards of its predecessors, should com- 
mand universal approval. The members of the Com- 
mittee, it was true, were elected by each of the several 
interests involved, but they were drawn from the 
shipping community of London alone, the outports 
having no direct voice in the choice of representatives. 
The Committee who framed the constitution of the 
Society expressed their " earnest desire to cultivate 
and maintain the most perfect good understanding 
with the Merchants, Shipowners, and Underwriters of 
the different ports of the United Kingdom, on whose 
support and co-operation they rely for the promotion 
of the objects of the Institution within their respective 
districts," and they sought, and in many cases obtained, 
the advice and assistance of commercial bodies at the 
different ports in the selection of properly qualified 
Surveyors. 

The desire of the principal outports, however, to 
possess a more direct representation in the manage- 
ment of the Society was evinced at a very early 
period. Soon after the publication of the Prospectus 
in the beginning of 1834, the Committee were called 
upon to consider the question. The first communica- 
tion on the subject was received from Sunderland, — 
then the most important shipbuilding centre in the 
country, nearly equalling, as regards the number and 
tonnage of ships built, all the other ports together. 
This was quickly followed by a representation from 
Liverpool, then, as now, the great centre of the West, 
in all matters pertaining to merchant shipping. The 
objections emanating from the latter port were at first 
confined to the proposed scale of charges The estab- 



~V3. 



66 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

llshment of a local Committee affiliated to the Com- 
mittee of the Society was next suggested. It appears, 
however, that the powers desired for the proposed 
Liverpool Committee were greater than could be 
granted consistently with the constitution of the 
Society, and therefore negotiations were ultimately 
abandoned. 

The Liverpool people upon the rejection of their 
proposals endeavoured to establish another Register 
of Shipping, and there was issued in the follow- 
ing year (1835) a book bearing the title of the 
** Liverpool Register of Shipping," containing the 
names and other particulars, but not the characters, 
of vessels belonging to Liverpool and of those trading 
thereto. There appears to have been but this one 
issue of the work. 

During the next few years the constitution of the 
Society and its practical working were freely canvassed 
in the mercantile press. In the course of time the 
opposition of parties at the outports was, for the most 
part, conciliated by the action of the General Ship- 
owners' Society. To this body was entrusted the 
election of one-half of the members of the Register 
Committee, and when filling up vacancies care was 
taken to include a fair proportion of such members of 
the Shipowners' Society as held seats there as the 
representatives of outports. By this means we find 
that in one year, out of the twelve gentlemen returned 
by the Shipowners' Society to serve on the Committee 
of Lloyd's Register, no less than five were the nominees 
of outports, namely of Whitby, Sunderland, Scar- 
borough, South Shields, and North Shields. 




Aitnals of Lloyd's Register. 67 

In Liverpool, however, this arrangement was 
not considered quite satisfactory, and a guarantee 
fund was raised in April, 1838, for the creation of 
a separate Register. The outcome of this movement 
was the " Liverpool Register of Shipping," which 
appears to have closely imitated Lloyd's Register, 
both in the symbols of classification and in the arrange- 
ment and phraseology of the Rules. 

In 1844, a proposal was made by the Com- 
mittee of the Liverpool Book that the two Societies 
should make a common revision of their respective 
Rules, in order to remove the differences that existed 
between them, and so put an end to any attempt to 
play off one Society against the other. Upon the 
invitation of the Committee of Lloyd's Register, the 
Liverpool Committee forwarded their suggestions on 
the Rules, and concluded by stating that, should their 
views be adopted, one Book would be sufficient 

The propositions put forward by the Liverpool 
Committee involved the existence of two Boards of 
Management, having equal powers within their re- 
spective provinces, — one at Liverpool having sole 
control of that district, and the other in London 
having jurisdiction over the other ports of the country. 
To this the General Committee could not consent, as it 
would have been inconsistent with the " fundamental 
constitution of this Society," but they referred the 
proposed amendments of the Rules to the considera- 
tion of a Sub-Committee. Negotiations now closed, 
but were reopened next year. A common ground of 
agreement was discovered, and on the 28th April, 
1845, t^e amalgamation of the two bodies was finally 

F 2 



68 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



approved of by the General Committee in special 
meeting assembled. 

The basis of amalgamation was substantially as 
follows : — The Liverpool Branch Committee, it was 
arranged, should consist of twelve Members, who 
would be elected by the Liverpool Underwriters 
Association and Shipowners* Association in equal 
proportions, the Chairmen of the Associations of 
Shipowners, Underwriters, and Shipbuilders respec- 
tively remaining ex-officio Members. The Chairman 
and Deputy-Chairman of the local Committee, together 
with the Chairman of the local Classification Committee, 
were each to have a seat at the London Board, ex 
officio. In dealing with reports of surveys held in the 
Liverpool district, the Branch Committee would stand 
in much the same relation as the Sub-Committee 
of Classification in London to the General Committee, 
whose decision on all reports of survey, as well as on 
other matters, is final. 

It was further distinctly specified that none of 
these arrangements should restrict the London Com- 
mittee from the exercise of a general superintendence 
over the affairs of the Society, in the Liverpool 
district, as elsewhere, as prescribed by the Rules. 
Such vessels as were classed exclusively in the 
Liverpool Register Book were to be placed in an 
appendix to Lloyd's Register, to be discontinued after 
a few years, the difference in the Rules of the two 
Societies being made the subject of consideration. 



-f— 





CHAPTER X. 

HILE these constitutional questions were 
being discussed and arranged, there were 
also heard sounds of murmuring against 
the proceedings of the still young Register Society 
in another respect. Prior to the publication of the 
Rules for the classification of vessels, the principles of 
theoretical naval architecture were little known. The 
country doubtless, had many ver)^ good shipbuilders, 
who built good and efficient vessels, but they were 
seldom guided by scientific rules. No scale of 
scantlings for the principal parts of merchant ships 
had been in force, nor was the practice of the 
preceding Register Societies, as regards new ships, 
based upon reliable data ; while, alike as regards the 
construction of new vessels and the efficient repairing 
of old ones, there was entirely wanting any well- 
arranged or uniform system of inspection. The 
Surveyors under the old arrangement, as has already 
been pointed out, were left practically uncontrolled in 
their decisions, and assigned characters in the Register 
Books to the vessels which they themselves surveyed. 



'^ 



iCZ' 



70 An7tals of Lloyd's Register. 

But now there was introduced by the Society's Rules 
a uniformity of system based upon the best ascertained 
practice, which left no room for glaring differences 
between the practice of one locality and another and 
the judgment of different Surveyors. The presiding 
Committee now granted classes to vessels only upon 
evidence of the requirements of the Rules having 
been complied with. 

The transition from the old, loose practice to the 
new systematic course of procedure was naturally 
attended with no small difficulties. Shipowners and 
shipbuilders, who had hitherto been left to follow their 
own inclinations in many cases, did not take kindly to 
the altered circumstances, and, as a result, the Society 
gained a notoriety in some quarters for being arbitrary 
and too strict in its requirements. 

Added to all this, the commercial marine of the 
country was then passing through a period of severe 
depression, which was not calculated to awaken ship- 
owners to a lively interest in a Register Society that, 
constituted as it was, must depend entirely for support 
upon them and the other interests concerned. 

Under these circumstances, it is not surprising to 
learn that for the first two or three years of the 
Society's existence it was somewhat doubtful 
whether it would succeed. The Subscribers to the 
Register Book, who on the establishment of the 
Society in 1834 numbered 721, had dwindled down 
in two years to 615; and in 1836, when Christmas 
came round, the funds were at such a low ebb that 
Mr. Chapman, the Chairman, advanced a sum 
of money in order that the salaries of the officers 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 71 

might not be in arrear ! This, however, was the 
turning-point, the " darkest hour before the dawn " ; 
for prosperity soon afterwards attended the Committee's 
efforts, and there was never a recurrence of this state 
of things. The Rules of the Society by this time 
had gained a hold on the public, and the number of 
Subscribers to the work rapidly increased from year 
to year, until the Committee had the satisfaction and 
pride of seeing the Institution which they had brought 
into existence take up a position of the first importance 
in the confidence of the public, — one that the vicissi- 
tudes of fifty years have left unimpaired. 

A brief reference to some of the contemporary 
records containing evidence of the estimation in which 
the Society was then held, may not be without 
interest. The Report of the Select Committee of 
the House of Commons, appointed in the year 1836, 
to inquire into the causes of the increased number of 
shipwrecks, furnishes us with the opinions of ship- 
owners and others who gave evidence, and with the 
judgment of the Select Committee itself, in regard to 
the operations and influence of the Register. 

It seems that at that time there was a feeling of 
uneasiness in some quarters regarding the apparent 
increase in the number of shipwrecks, and in connexion 
with a question of such importance affecting the mercan- 
tile marine it could only be expected that the Society's 
work would come under consideration. The Select 
Committee in their Report explain the shortcomings of 
the old Register Societies, to whose defective systems 
of classification they show that the production of cheap 
and badly-constructed ships was chiefly due ; and 



72 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

they then go on to say that " the system of classifica- 
tion has been greatly improved by the formation of 
a new Association, entitled, * Lloyd's Register of 
British and Foreign Shipping,' the basis of whose 
regulations appears to be a bond-fide attempt to 
classify vessels according to their real and intrinsic 
merits, including their age, construction, materials, 
workmanship, and stores " ; also that " there is reason 
to believe that the ultimate result of this new system 
of classification will be to effect a great improvement 
in the general character of the ships of the United 
Kingdom." That this expectation has since been 
realised is doubtless the opinion of all who have care- 
fully watched the successive developments in naval 
construction during later years, and have traced the 
effects of the Society's influence in relation to them. 

The Annual Report presented to the public 
meeting of the General Shipowners' Society in 
July, 1840, bears testimony to the continued growth 
of the Society, which is alluded to in the following 
terms : — 

" The last point to which your Committee would 
especially call attention is one which involves probably 
a greater degree of real importance than any other charge 
entrusted to their superintendence. It is the position 
occupied by the Committee in relation to the now really 
national establishment of * Lloyd's Register of British 
and Foreign Shipping.' The vast influence over the 
Shipping property of the country exercised by that 
Committee, though by some imperfectly understood, 
and by many inadequately estimated, may be inferred 
from the fact that 11, 595 ships and vessels are now 
recorded in the Register." * * * 

" It is the unhesitating belief of your Committee that, 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 73 

making reasonable allowance for difficulties inseparable 
from such a task, this important duty is, on the whole, 
ably, impartially, and beneficially performed ; the general 
character of British Shipping having considerably im- 
proved since the establishment of the new system." 

The views of the Committee received confirmation 
from the speeches delivered at the meeting, one out- 
port representative stating that, to his knowledge, the 
"improvement in shipbuilding at Sunderland was 
greatly due to the action of Lloyd's Register." 

Some interesting evidence to the same effect is 
found in the proceedings of the Select Committee of 
the House of Commons of 1843 on "Shipwrecks." 
The Committee's report contains the following para- 
graph :— 

" The Association formed for the survey and classi- 
fication of merchant vessels, especially alluded to in the 
report of the Committee of 1836, under the name of 
' Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping,' has 
made regular progress from that time, and, as appears 
by the evidence of the Secretary, any objections enter- 
tained against it in the first instance are now removed, and 
shipowners are generally ready to submit their ships and 
stores to the fair examination of the surveyors of the 
Society for the purpose of having them classed in the 
Register Book according to their real quality." 

By this time Shippers and Passengers, as well as 
Underwriters, were in the habit of consulting the 
Register Book before they embarked their goods, their 
persons, or their money upon a ship to risk the hazards 
of a voyage, believing that when information respecting 
a ship was not to be obtained by reference to the 
Register it was a "bad omen and a weighty objection 



74 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



against her." We now find the Shipping and Mer- 
cantile Gazette^ which, in the earlier existence of the 
Society, had been one of its most candid critics, 
constrained to admit that the Committee of the new 
Society had "exercised their functions with honour, 
firmness, and impartiaHty " ; and that the system of 
classification " brought into operation under all the 
difficulties of a declining trade, had attained a success 
which, considering the want of unanimity among Ship- 
owners, is very remarkable." Again, the same journal 
stated that the Registry had by this time " acquired 
so great an importance as an authority upon the value 
and seaworthiness of merchant vessels, that it would 
be impossible for ever so good a ship to obtain 
freight abroad without reference to the Register." 

The following figures show the progress made in 
the classification of ships between 1836 and 1842 : — 



Number of vessels classed A 


in 1836 


. 2,789 


>> >) 




1837 


. 3,186 


» » 




1838 


. 3,782 


»> » 




1839 


. 4,401 


M » 




1840 


. 5,226 


» » 




1 841 


• 5,961 


>» » 




1842 


. 6,321 







CHAPTER XL 

LTHOUGH no Rules for the construc- 
tion of Iron Ships were promulgated by 
the Society till 1855, vessels of this 
description were admitted to classification in the 
Reofister Book at a much earlier date. The atten- 
tion of the Society was first directed to iron as 
a material for ships about 1837, in which year 
the first iron vessel that received a class was 
built. This was the steamer Sirius, of 180 tons, 
built in London under the inspection of the Society's 
Surveyors, and owned at Marseilles. She appears 
in the supplement to the 1837 volume, having the 
A character without a term of years, and the nota- 
tion " Built of iron." The next one entered in the 
Book was the iron sailing ship Iro7iside, of 270 tons, 
constructed in 1838 by Messrs. Jackson & Jordan, 
of Liverpool, for Messrs. Cairns & Co., of the same 
port. This vessel appears in the 1839 volume, with 
the same note " Built of iron," but without any class, 
although it is evident from the date, "11, 38," inserted 
in the column for classification, that she had been 
surveyed by the Society's officers in November, 1838. 
From 1838 until 1844 the Committee continued to 




76 Annals of Lloyd's Register 

record iron ships in the Register Book with no other 
designation than that of "built of iron," such as was 
accorded to the Ironside. In August, 1843, however, 
the Committee determined to collect all the evidence 
available from their surveying staff relating to the 
experiences acquired in regard to iron ships, and the 
Surveyors were requested to report to the Committee 
upon the qualities, durability of materials, workman- 
ship, and fastenings of such vessels. These reports 
were duly received and considered by the Committee, 
and upon the 4th of January, 1844, a notice was issued 
that " in future (by a resolution passed that day) 
the character A 1 will be granted by the Society to 
vessels of iron built under the Survey of the Society's 
Surveyors, and reported to be of good and substan- 
tial materials and with good workmanship. All such 
vessels to be surveyed annually." 

It should be added that before this date the number 
of iron ships had so increased, and the demand for 
some kind of higher class, based on fixed Rules, had 
become so general that the Committee appealed to the 
Shipbuilders of the country for assistance in compiling 
such Rules. This request was, however, made in 
vain, and the Iron Rules remained in a vague and 
indeterminate form until the year 1854. The Com- 
mittee hesitated to lay down hard-and-fast lines for 
the construction of iron ships while such ships were 
in their infancy, preferring rather to await more 
lengthened experience. 

During the next few years the reports received 
from the Surveyors stationed at all parts of the 
country constituted an excellent and safe guide in the 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 77 

preparation of the Rules for Iron Ships, when that 
task was at last undertaken. 

Under the direction of Messrs. Martin and 
Ritchie, the Society's principal surveyors, every 
opportunity was taken for collecting trustworthy data 
in regard to the performances of iron ships. The 
principal iron Shipbuilders of the United Kingdom 
were also communicated with on the same subject, 
and the replies received from them proved in many 
cases of value to the principal surveyors in preparing 
their recommendations for the consideration of the 
Committee. 

The earliest suggested Rules for Iron Ships of which 
any record exists were received from the Glasgow office 
of the Society, the Clyde being then, as now, one of 
the principal centres of the iron shipbuilding industry. 
They were dated the loth of February, 1854, and 
were signed by Richard Robertson, Henry Adams, and 
Samuel Pretlous, surveyors of the Society, stationed 
respectively at Glasgow, Hull, and Newcastle, who 
appear to have sat as a Committee upon the subject, 
by the direction of the Committee of the Register. 

These proposals, slightly altered, appeared in the 
Register Book for 1855, in the form of the first 
Rules on Iron Shipbuilding issued by the Society, 
and were prefaced by the following remarks : — 

"Considering that Iron Shipbuilding is yet in its 
infancy, and that there are no well-understood general 
rules for building Iron Ships, the Committee have not 
deemed it desirable to frame a scheme compelling the 
adoption of a particular form or mode of construction ; 
but that certain general requirements should be put for- 



78 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

ward having for their basis thickness of plates and 
substance of frames, showing a inininmm in each par- 
ticular, to entitle ships to the character A for a period oi 
years, subject, however, to certain periodical surveys ; 
and also to a continuation of such character, should 
their state and condition justify it on subsequent exa- 
mination. For the purpose of attaining this object, the 
following Rules and the accompanying Table of Dimen- 
sions have been formed." 

According to these Rules, iron ships built under 
survey might be classed for periods of twelve, nine, 
and six years, subject to occasional or annual surveys 
when practicable, and to a special survey in dry 
dock or on blocks every third year. The thickness 
of the plating, together with the spacing of the frames, 
determined the number of years assigned, there being 
a difference in thickness of i-i6th of an inch between 
each grade, and a difference in frame - spacing of 
two inches between the highest and the two lower 
grades ; but in all other respects the requirements 
were common to the three classes. Following the 
provisions of the Rules for Wood Ships, one year 
was added to the period assigned in the case of 
vessels built under a roof; while vessels not sur- 
veyed during construction were classed A from year 
to year only, but for a period not exceeding six years. 

On the expiration of the terms of classification, the 
vessels were liable to lapse to the M. character, unless 
specially surveyed to determine their claims to be 
allowed a higher class. 

The quantity of material used in iron ships at this 
period was considerable, as may be seen on reference 
to the scantlings and arrangements prescribed in the 



M 



Annals of Lloyc^s Register. 79 

Rules. For instance, the shell plating was required 
to be one inch in thickness for vessels of 3,000 tons 
of the highest grade, and the frames to be spaced 
not more than sixteen inches apart for the twelve- 
years' grade, this limit being increased to eighteen 
inches in vessels of the lower classes of nine and six 
years. In addition, all iron vessels were required to 
have a strake of clamp or ceiling plates fitted all fore 
and aft between the tiers of beams ; and in vessels 
with only one tier of beams, the clamp was required 
to be fitted about two feet below the beams. 

The foregoing Rules, — which underwent some 
alterations in 1857, when the thickness of the plating 
for vessels of the several grades was increased by i - 1 6th 
of an inch, and the frame-spacing was increased from 
sixteen to eighteen inches, — remained in force for 
nearly ten years, but they do not appear to have 
gained universal approval. 

Mr. Ritchie, one of the Society's principal Sur- 
veyors, who took an active part in the preparation of 
the Rules for Iron Ships in 1854, has left upon record 
the following remarks in regard to them, which may 
now be read with interest and advantage : — 

" At the time the Committee drew up the first Rules 
in 1854, they felt that a classification of six, nine, and 
twelve years, although it might approach the truth as 
to the probable comparative durability of the various 
kinds of timber of which such ships were allowed by the 
Rules to be built, yet these characters could not correctly 
indicate the durability of vessels built of metal, which 
only deteriorated by the wasting of the surfaces, and 
whose durability depended upon diflferent laws than that 
of timber." 




T) 



80 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

It was considered, however, that these rules for 
classing would serve until more experience was gained, 
not only in the durability of iron when subjected to the 
continuous action of sea-water and the chemical action 
of some descriptions of cargoes, but also on unascer- 
tained points in the construction of iron ships which 
could not be premised from the most complete 
knowledge of wooden ships. 

In the year following the preparation of the first 
Rules issued by the Society for the construction and 
classification of iron ships, the Committee passed reso- 
lutions sanctioning the continuation and restoration 
of such vessels, subject to their being submitted to 
certain prescribed examinations. The continuation 
granted upon the A character was not to exceed half 
the term assigned originally or on restoration, and 
the restoration could not exceed two-thirds the period 
originally assigned, and was to commence from the 
date of survey. Further resolutions were also adopted 
at the same time relating to vessels already classed 
without a term of years, by which such vessels might 
be granted a term, unless it should be found that, if 
they had been originally classed for a period of years, 
their characters would have expired, in which case 
they would lapse into the ^ class, if found entitled 
thereto. 

In 1856 the Committee issued the very important 
regulation, that when the engines and boilers of iron 
ships were taken out of them, the ships should be 
submitted to a partiadar and special survey. The 
necessity for this measure has since been abundantly 
illustrated. 



f 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 8i 

An important departure was taken about this time 
by admitting to classification vessels which were not 
built in accordance with the Society's Rules. In 
July, 1857, the Committee decided that ships built on 
peculiar principles should be specially surveyed every 
two years and marked " Expl. (B.S.)," denoting that 
they were of an experimental character, and were 
classed subject to their being surveyed biennially. 

Mr. Ritchie said, in 1863, when addressing the 
Institution of Naval Architects : — " It should be borne 
in mind that, although the mode of constructing iron 
ships primarily intended by these Rules is the original 
ordinary one of vertical frames and longitudinal 
plating, the Committee do not hesitate to admit into 
the Register Book and into the same classes, vessels 
otherwise constructed, if of equal strength ; and they 
have classed ships with longitudinal frames or with 
diagonal frames, and many with double or cellular 
bottoms for water - ballast." Contemporary evi- 
dence of this disposition of the Register Committee 
to afford every impetus in their power to constructive 
development is also obtainable from such an eminent 
shipbuilder as Mr. Scott Russell, the builder of the 
Great Eastern. 

That gentleman, who built more novelties than any 
other shipbuilder of his time, when referring to this 
subject in i860, alluded to "the lex non scripta, or 
unwritten Rule of Lloyd's " ; and said that, although 
the Society was compelled to frame Rules for the 
guidance of its Surveyors, it was yet prepared to class a 
ship built in any other way, " if it can be shown that 
she is as strong as one built by the Rules " ; and, 

G 



k 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



further, that the Society " had relaxed their Rules in 
a way which enables them to combine with the 
strictness of Rules a defiance of any one saying 
that they stand in the way of the progress of iron 
shipbuilding." These statements are interesting now, 
as showing the hold which the Society had gained 
upon the goodwill and respect of the shipping com- 
munity at a time when iron shipbuilding was in an 
unsettled and growing state, and when there were so 
many difficulties in the way of arriving at a just 
conclusion regarding the merits of the many modes 
of construction which were being proposed and tried. 







CHAPTER XII. 

ITH all the advantages that arose from 
the use of Iron for Shipbuilding, there 
was one objection which soon began to 
make itself apparent. 

Experience showed that the bottoms of iron 
ships were more or less subject to fouling and cor- 
rosion, whereby the speed became greatly reduced 
after the vessels had been some few months at 
sea. Many attempts were made then, and have 
been continued since, to discover a material for coating 
the bottom which should prevent both fouling and 
corrosion ; and, although some of the compositions in 
use do effect that result to a considerable degree, yet 
it must be admitted that to a large extent the same 
difficulty exists now as at the beginning. 

Hence, so early as 1861, and even before then, 
various modes of sheathing the bottoms of iron 
ships were tried, the sheathing being in every case 
covered with copper or Muntz's metal ; and ultimately 
the plating was in some instances entirely dispensed 
with, and wood planking wrought upon the iron 
frames. These latter vessels came to be spoken of 
as " Composite Vessels," and that designation is still 

G 2 




84 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

retained. Their planking was, of course, caulked, and 
their bottoms were sheathed with copper or Muntz's 
metal, like those of ordinary wood ships, thus 
giving them all the advantages of the latter as to 
cleanliness and consequent speed. 

The trade with China and the East Indies round 
the Cape of Good Hope created a special demand for 
vessels capable of making fast homeward passages, 
and the composite system was exactly adapted for 
such ships. The composite tea clippers, and their 
singularly swift ocean voyages, via the Cape, with 
cargoes of new teas, will long be remembered, 
although these ships are now becoming of the past, 
and the special work for which they were built is 
being performed by steamers. 

The first composite ship to appear in the 
Register Book was the Tubal Cain, of "]%"] tons, 
which was entered in the edition for 1851 with the 
notation, " Iron frame, planked," and with the character 
A, but no term of years. 

In i860 and the immediately subsequent years 
this description of vessel appears to have been viewed 
with more favour than previously, as we find several 
shipbuilders inquiring what class the Committee would 
be prepared to give to such vessels when built. The 
experience of the Committee with this type of ship 
having led them to regard composite vessels as experi- 
mental, a notation to this effect was placed against 
these vessels in the Register Book, and they were 
subject to biennial survey, in order that particular 
attention might be paid to the condition of their 
fastenings. 



^ **Vr 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 85 

Subsequent experience prov^ed the wisdom of this 
course being adopted, as the renewal of bolt-fasten- 
ings has been the chief source of expense in the 
repairs of composite ships, except when entirely of 
copper or mixed metal. It was, however, at that 
time very doubtful whether the association of iron and 
copper in the framing and fastenings of these vessels 
would not lead to a galvanic action such as would result 
in the wastinof of the former and the looseninof- of the 
latter. A term of years was, however, granted by the 
Committee, in accordance with the characters assigned 
to the wood materials employed in their construction, 
the same as in the case of wood ships. 

Various modes of construction were at first pro- 
posed. Some of the vessels had wood floors and iron 
angle-frames ; in others, the frames were of " channel " 
iron, or some equally novel sectional form ; many 
variations also existed in the modes of fastening. 

Under these circumstances, Mr. Waymouth, one 
of the Surveyors on the London establishment, pro- 
ceeded, in 1S64, by the Committee's direction, to 
prepare Rules for the construction of Composite 
ships, and these were adopted by the Committee, and 
issued as suggested Rules for Composite ships in the 
year 1867. As before, the period assigned was based 
upon the nature of the wood materials employed, and 
the character of the fastening, — an addition of one 
year being also given when the vessel was built under 
a roof. Indeed, the Rules were practically the same as 
those for wood ships so far as regards these points. 

It should be stated that the Rules were illustrated 
with drawings prepared by Mr. Cornish, who is now 



r^ 



86 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



one of the Assistants to the Chief Surveyor, and that 
the original drawings upon exhibition at Paris and 
Moscow were awarded Bronze and Gold Medals. 

These Rules were universally adopted, and nearly 
every composite ship since built has been constructed 
in accordance with their provisions. Subsequent expe- 
rience with these vessels has been very satisfactory, but 
the opening of the Suez Canal checked their produc- 
tion at once, especially as their construction is rather 
expensive, when compared with that of iron ships. 
Many of the composite ships still remain, doing good 
and regular service. 






CHAPTER XIII. 

|FTER the amalgamation of the Society with 
the Liverpool Register in 1845, ^^ further 
change took place in the constitution of the 
Committee until 1863. But the intervening years 
were not allowed to pass without a renewal of the 
applications from the Provinces to be admitted to 
a share in the management of the Society. The 
enlargement of its London Board, by the admission 
of Nominees from Liverpool, touched the suscepti- 
bilities of the other outports ; and the north-eastern 
districts, then rapidly growing in commercial activity, 
were not slow to take advantage of the opportunity 
thus afforded to urore their claims. 

It was contended that the outports generally had 
a very insufficient voice in the management of the 
affairs of the Society ; and that, as its operations 
extended to all the ports in the country, the election 
of the London Committee by and out of residents 
in the Metropolis was at variance with all prin- 
ciples of representation. These appeals, however, 
did not lead to any immediate result, and, as already 
stated, it was not till 1863 that any modification was 
made. 






ZJ 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



In that year the whole question of the representa- 
tion of outports was raised by the Associations of 
Shipowners and Underwriters at Liverpool. The 
proposals of these bodies were brought under the 
consideration of the Committee at a special meeting 
on June ist of that year, when it was resolved unani- 
mously, that the Committee were prepared to consider 
favourably the proposition to admit additional 
Members, to be nominated from the outports. A 
deputation from Liverpool was received by the 
Committee in support of the views of the Shipping 
interests at that port, and at a subsequent meeting, 
specially convened, the following resolutions were 
adopted : — 

" That an addition, not exceeding ten Members, be 
made to the present Committee. 

" That four of the additional Members be nominated 
from Liverpool, viz., two to be elected by the Liverpool 
Shipowners' Association ; two to be elected by the 
Liverpool Underwriters' Association." 

It was left entirely to the discretion of the Asso- 
ciations above named to elect gentlemen who were or 
were not already Members of the Liverpool Com- 
mittee ; but in either case the Liverpool Committee, 
it was understood, should not be increased in the 
number of its Members. 

The powers of the Liverpool Committee were at 
the same time somewhat enlarged, and a local Chair- 
man of the Rotation Sub-Committee of Classification 
was appointed. 

The remaining six additional Outport Members, 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 89 

each of whom had to be either a Merchant, Ship- 
owner, or Underwriter, were allotted as follows : — 

Two Members for the Clyde — namely, one Under- 
writer, and one Shipowner. 

One Merchant for the Tyne. 

One Shipowner for the Wear. 

One Merchant for Hull. 

One Merchant for Bristol. 

In the following year (1864) a further addition was 
made to the Committee in the person of a Member 
assigned to the Tees and Hartlepool district, and 
returnable as an Underwriter. This made the Mem- 
bers allotted to the north-eastern ports three in 
number — namely, a Merchant representing the Tyne, 
a Shipowner from the Wear, and an Underwriter 
elected on the Tees. 

Regarding the admissibility of Shipbuilders as a 
constituent part of the Committee, it is interesting 
to observe what views were held on the subject 
by the Committee of that time. Touching a pro- 
posal received from Liverpool, to the effect that, 
besides the four additional Members allotted to that 
port, the Chairman for the time being of the Liver- 
pool Shipbuilders' Association should be appointed 
a Member of the General Committee, the following 
resolutions were adopted : — 

" That in readily acceding to the recommendation 
of the Liverpool Associations for the amendment of the 
Constitution of the Committee, by the admission of ten 
additional Representatives for the Outports, 'four of whom 
to be elected by the Shipowners and Undenvriters of 
Liverpool, the residue to be distributed over the other 



\^ 



Qo Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

Outports, according to their importance,' this Committee 
were actuated by a sincere desire both to enlarge 
the sphere of usefulness of the Society, by a compre- 
hensive extension of its administrative powers, and to 
give Liverpool the share of such power to which the 
extent of its interest in Maritime Commerce justly 
entitles it." 

" That having already, in accordance with these 
principles, consented to the election from Liverpool, 
of the number of Representatives asked by the Liver- 
pool Associations, this Committee cannot, in justice to 
the interests of other Outports, consent to any increase 
of that number, nor are they prepared, having reference 
to the original Constitution of the Society, and to all 
circumstances of the specific recommendation from Liver- 
pool, to admit, as an element of the composition of the 
Superintending Authority, of a Representative of the | 

Shipbuilding interest generally, and still less of a j 

Representative of such interest from any one particular { 

port." ] 

"That this Committee are confirmed in the above ] 

Resolution from the consideration that the Liverpool | 

Shipowners' Association, having the unrestricted right j 

of selecting their own Representatives, have always the ] 

power of giving effect, should they see fit, to the objects ] 

of which they express approval." 

Again, in the record of the proceedings attending 
the discussion of some proposals made on the north- 
east coast about this period, with the object of se- 
curing a local Committee of Reference, the following 
statement appears : — 

" The Chairman [Mr. Chapman] explained to the 
Deputation that the Constitution of the Society required 
that the Committee should consist of Merchants, Ship- 
owners, and Underwriters, in equal proportions, and 
that consequently the admission of Shipbuilders as an 



element in the Committee would be a violation of the 
Constitution on which the Society was formed." 

The Committee of this Society have twice had 
under consideration the question of the advisability 
of an amalgamation with the " Underwriters' Registry 
for Iron Vessels," which was established in Liverpool 
in 1862. 

The first occasion upon which the question arose 
was in 1870. In the early part of that year the 
Liverpool Branch Committee of this Society brought 
forward a proposal to the effect that some measures 
should be taken with a view to promote the closer 
association of the Steamship-owning Interest of the 
United Kingdom with the Register Book. This sug- 
gestion commending itself to the General Committee, 
a special Sub-Committee was then appointed to con- 
sider what steps could most properly be taken to 
secure the object. Liverpool being then the great 
centre of steam shipping, the Sub-Committee paid 
a visit to that port in August of the same year. 

A basis of amalgamation between the Liverpool 
Registry and this Society was proposed, and was 
referred to a conference between the Special Sub- 
Committee, the Liverpool Branch Committee, and a 
Deputation from the Underwriters' Registry. 

At this conference the subject was very fully 
discussed, but the propositions which were finally 
agreed upon did not commend themselves to the 
Committee of Lloyd's Register, to whose considera- 
tion they were submitted at a special meeting. 

The question appears to have remained in abey- 






92 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

ance until 1873, when it was revived by a Member 
of the General Committee of this Society. 

Subsequently a meeting was arranged between 
delegates from each Society, and a report of their 
proceedings was considered by the General Com- 
mittee of Lloyd's Register; but no further progress 
was made, and the proposal fell through. 

In the meanwhile the Rules regulating the 
relations of the Liverpool Branch Committee with 
the London Board had undergone such revision as 
experience showed to be necessary ; and under 
the arrangements then adopted, and which have 
remained in force unaltered up to the present time, the 
relations of the two Committees have been carried on 
with the most perfect harmony and with the most 
satisfactory results to all parties concerned. 

The revised Code which was adopted in 1871 
allowed Liverpool an additional member on the 
General Committee. In place of the represen- 
tatives elected under the previous regulations by 
the Associations of Shipowners and Underwriters 
(who were not of necessity members of the Local 
Committee) and the three ex-officio members, it was 
determined that eight of the members of the Liver- 
pool Committee should be members of the General 
Committee in London, — two to be elected by the 
Liverpool Shipowners' Association, two by the Liver- 
pool Underwriters' Association, and the remaining 
four by the Liverpool Committee ; two of the latter 
being the Chairman and Deputy Chairman, unless 
they should have been elected by either of the other 
electing Associations. It was at the same time 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



decided to admit other members of the Liverpool 
Committee as substitutes for any of the eight Liver- 
pool representatives who might be unable to attend 
a special meeting of the General Committee in 
London. 




m 





CHAPTER XIV. 

N the year 1863, after nine years' experience 
with the working of the Rules for building 
iron ships, the Committee again took this 
subject under their consideration, with a view to 
revision in those particulars which had been found 
to require it. As a preliminary measure, inquiries 
were made of the whole of the surveying staff and 
of the principal iron ship-builders in the United 
Kingdom, and replies were received from twenty- 
four Shipbuilders and twenty-eight Surveyors. The 
result of their recommendations, and the subsequent 
deliberations of the Committee, was a general 
revision of the Rules and an alteration in the mode 
of classification. 

It had been found that the practice of classifying 
iron ships for terms of years was not in harmony with 
the characteristics of the material employed in their 
construction, which does not decay, but wastes on the 
surface by oxidation. The character of an iron ship 
would be determined by the thickness of the plates 
and angle-irons of which she is built — having regard 
to her dimensions and proportions. So long as these 
scantlings remain undiminished, or almost so, it is 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 95 

not reasonable that her character should suffer simply 
because she has reached a certain age. This was the 
opinion which had grown in the minds of the Society's 
officers during the course of their periodical examination 
of the iron ships classed in the Register. 

The Committee therefore determined to class iron 
ships under the three grades, ^, /^, and /^, and that 
these classes should be retained so long as the state of 
efficiency of vessels entitled them thereto. The ^ 
and /^ classes denoted vessels that had been built in 
accordance with, or equal to, the requirements of the 
Rules, while the ^ class consisted of vessels entitled 
to character /\, but which had not been built according 
to the Rules. With the introduction of these new 
Rules, the frame-spacing was increased to twenty- 
one inches ; but in vessels provided for half their 
length amidships with double frames, fitted back to 
back, and riveted to one another and to the floors and 
shell plating, the spacing could be extended to twenty- 
three inches. It was further resolved that, in order 
to ascertain the conditions of classed iron ships from 
time to time, they should be subjected to a special 
survey every four years in the ^ class, every three 
years in the /^ class, and every two years in the /^ 
class, in addition to the annual survey prescribed in 
the Rules in the case of every vessel. 

These periodical special surveys now took the 
place of the continuation and restoration surveys 
previously required, and the Rules for these surveys 
were laid down with the same precision as those for 
reclassing wooden ships. 

Many amendments were made in the Rules and 



Tables of Scantlings previously in operation, but the 
number of these is too considerable for notice here. 
Their tendency was in the direction of reducing the 
scantlings towards the extremities of vessels, and in 
generally adjusting the proportions of the thicknesses 
of material in accordance with the strains and wasting 
influences to which they are subjected. 

The attention given to this important question in 
1863 marks an interesting epoch in the history of the 
Society, as the Rules then formulated constitute the 
groundwork of those in operation ever since. 

The ample strength provided by the Rules for 
iron ships of the prevalent type of that day is 
clearly shown by the fact that many vessels built 
in accordance with them are still sound, and fit for 
the heaviest work. 

The year 1870 witnessed a most important depar- 
ture in the Rules for iron ships. 

Up to that time the basis adopted in fixing the 
scantlings for iron ships under the Society's Rules 
was the under-deck tonnage, the same as that 
adopted in the cases of both wood and composite 
vessels. Experience, however, had shown that 
tonnage was not a suitable basis for regulating 
the scantlings of iron ships. Apart from other 
reasons, there was always the possibility of the limits 
of tonnage which fixed the scantlings of a vessel 
being exceeded. The tonnage could not be deter- 
mined with certainty until the vessel was completed 
and measured by the Government officer ; and in the 
case of vessels which it was intended should be 
slightly under any of the limits of tonnage, it not 



Amials of Lloyd's Register. 97 

unfrequently occurred that when finished their tonnaore 
was found to be in excess of those limits, thereby 
brinorinor the vessels under a hio^her scale of scantlinofs 
than that adopted in their construction. In such cases 
the Committee were unable consistently with their 
published Rules to assign to the vessels the classifica- 
tion contemplated. 

Under these circumstances Mr. Waymouth, the 
present Secretary, who was then one of the principal 
Surveyors, submitted, as the result of the long 
and anxious thought he had given to the Rules, a 
proposal that the scantlings of iron vessels should 
be determined, not by their tonnage, but by certain 
of their dimensions. At the same time, he submitted 
new Rules and Tables, which had been framed by 
him on the proposed method. These Rules, which 
introduced for the first time the element of the pro- 
portion of breadth to length as affecting the scantlings 
of vessels, authorised a new and improved mode of 
construction, which, by the better distribution of the 
material in the structure, admitted of considerable 
reductions in the scantlings previously insisted upon. 

In November, 1869, the first of a long series of 
meetings of a Sub-Committee was held to consider 
the Society's Rules for the construction and classifica- 
tion of iron ships. This Sub-Committee came to the 
conclusion that tonnage was not a proper standard 
for determining the scantlings of iron vessels. 
They, therefore, recommended that it should be 
abandoned, and that in place of it Mr. Waymouth's 
proposal and new Rules should be adopted. 

It was in the first instance suggested that the 

H 



98 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

dimensions basis, referred to, should not be insisted 
upon generally, but should be sanctioned as an alter- 
native standard, to be adopted at the option of the 
Shipbuilders, if they preferred it. 

Mr. Waymouth's proposals, however, did not meet 
with the concurrence of Messrs. Martin and Ritchie, 
the principal Surveyors, who were strongly in favour 
of retaining the old method ; and the Committee gave 
instructions for a conference to be held between them 
and some of the senior Surveyors from the outports. 
Several meetings took place, at which Mr. Martell, 
now the Chief Surveyor, took a leading part in com- 
bating the views of those opposed to Mr. Waymouth's 
suggestions, and after much discussion the opinions 
in favour of the alteration prevailed. Ultimately, as 
the result of a most careful and protracted considera- 
tion, the General Committee resolved to adopt the 
method proposed by Mr. Waymouth as the sole 
standard in determining the scantlings of iron vessels. 
The dimensions then adopted are such as those still 
in use for regulating the scantlings of iron ships in 
thfe present Rules. 

With the new Rules the symbols 100 A., 90 A, 80 A, 
&c., were introduced in the classification of iron ships. 
Vessels to which these classes are assigned are entitled 
to retain them so long as on survey they are found 
to be in satisfactory condition. Ships classed lOOA 
to 90 A inclusive are to be submitted to special survey 
every four years, while those classed 85A and under 
are to be specially surveyed every three years. 

In 1 87 1 the Rules for the construction of iron 
ships were still further revised, and Tables added. 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



99 



giving size of beams, breadth of stringer-plates, and 
particulars for the construction of iron and steel masts, 
bowsprits, and yards. 

With some further modifications in the details, and 
additions where more recent experience has proved 
them to be necessary, the Rules passed in 1870 remain 
in force to this day. The basis of measurement is 
the same as was then adopted, and any changes which 
have been made are in the form of amendments in 
the scantlings. 




^- 



H 2 



^ 



M 




CHAPTER XV. 




IHILE the developments we have just 
recorded were being made in the Rules 
relating to iron ships, the Committee were 
not inactive in regard to those constructed of wood. 
The experience continually being acquired by the 
Surveyors pointed to the necessity for holding a 
special survey upon a vessel when half the period 
of her first classification, or continued or restored 
class had expired ; and by a minute of the Committee 
in 1 847 it was directed that, in addition to the ordinary 
annual surveys, a special survey should be held upon 
every vessel very soon after the expiration of one-half 
the period of her classification. 

Various alterations were made about 1857. In 
that year the red A class was instituted, instead of 
the red *JE, as the second description of the first 
class. Vessels not originally assigned a longer term 
than five years were not eligible for this class. 

Under the provisions of the early Rules, vessels 
which were not submitted to survey for continuation 
or restoration on the expiration of their several terms 
of years on the A character, immediately lapsed to 
the JE class. This was so far altered in 1857 that 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. loi 

the word " lapsed " was set against ships in that 
condition, unless the owner requested the insertion 
of the ^ character ; and the classification was omitted 
from the next reprint of the Register, unless the 
requisite survey had previously been held. The 
practice of inserting the word " expired " against 
vessels when they had run off the letter A was 
begun in 1863, and has continued to the present 
time. 

About this period, also, was introduced the second 
survey, under the Rule for Continuation, already 
referred to as allowing an extension of two-thirds of 
the vessel's original term of years. 

Other improvements of a somewhat earlier date 
were the regulations admitting ships classed A for 
short terms of years to the advantages of the con- 
tinuation survey, and the special survey for A in 
red. 

The special survey mark ►$<, to indicate that a 
vessel has been surveyed specially and continuously 
during her construction, was first instituted in the year 
1853. Continuous surveys were, of course, held for 
some time before a distinctive mark was chosen to 
indicate them ; but it was only right that the great 
superiority of the conditions of survey in one case 
over the other should be properly recognised in the 
Register Book. The order was made retrospective, 
so as to apply to vessels already built and classed. 

In 1865 a new character was introduced 
into the Register Book, foreign - built vessels, 
with scantlings not in accordance with the Rules, 
being classed 1 F, 2 F, or 3 F, according to 



')^ 



102 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

their condition when surveyed. This character was 
continued in the book until 1876, when it was with- 
drawn, and owners of vessels of that class were 
requested to submit them to survey for some other 
character provided in the Rules. 

The benefits arising from diagonal doubling of 
ships having been frequently brought under the notice 
of the Committee, they determined, in 1869, that 
ships should be allowed an extension of class, 
provided they were diagonally doubled when under 
survey for continuation on, or restoration to, the 
A class, or for the class of A in red. Vessels of the 
five- years' grade and under received two years' 
extension ; those above five and under twelve years, 
three years' extension ; while twelve-year ships had 
four years added to their time. 

In 1 871 it was further determined that any ships 
diagonally doubled, in accordance with the require- 
ments of the Rules, would be eligible to receive a 
similar extension of time on the A class, provided 
they were not doubled before the expiration of twelve 
months from the date of launching. No vessel, which 
is allowed an extension of her original classification 
for doubling can have any further extension on the 
same ground when re-classed. 

Several important alterations and additions to the 
Society's Rules for the classification of wooden vessels 
were made in the year 1870. Reference has already 
been made to the salting of ships — a beneficial practice 
which had by this time become frequent in some 
parts of the country. This was now made uniformly 
prevalent through the encouragement offered by the 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 103 

Rules allowing an additional year in classification for 
salting. 

The term of years assigned to certain descriptions 
of timber was also increased by the Committee in 
accordance with the latest experience acquired in 
regard to their durability. For instance, East India 
teak, which, until this time, had been classed as a 
twelve-years' material, was now raised to fourteen 
years. The periods assigned to certain other 
materials were at the same time reduced, in con- 
sequence of unfavourable reports regarding them. 
But the most important resolution adopted by the 
Committee relating to wood ships during the year 
1870 is that known as the Mixed Material 
Rule. 

The object of this new regulation, which was 
proposed by Mr. Waymouth, w'as to give to vessels 
built with mixed timber material (below the twelve- 
years' grade), of superior workmanship, and in which 
hiorh-class material and extra fasteninofs had been 
judiciously employed to such an extent as to satisfy 
the Committee, an extension of class of not more 
than two years beyond that to which the lowest 
material used in their construction would otherwise 
entitle them. Through the operation of this Rule, 
encouragement was offered to the production of wood 
ships with the best materials and workmanship, 
and the owners of existing vessels of this description 
were to some extent remunerated for the extra outlay 
on their materials and fastenings. 

In the year 1878 a further alteration was made in 
the Rules for wooden ships by raising the grade of 





104 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

certain materials, especially when salted, it having 
been found that American oak and fir timber were 
worthy of a higher character when salted than had 
been hitherto assigned to them. The periods allowed 
for other materials were lowered, and some woods 
were wholly expunged from the Table. 

Very few wood vessels are, however, now being 
built, iron and steel having almost entirely superseded 
the once universal material for ships. But there 
can be little doubt that wood ships were never 
better built than when they were being superseded 
by iron vessels. 

The figure 2, representing a defective equipment, 
was withdrawn in 1876, and the mark, thus — 
substituted. In the same year the I, or lowest 
character, was omitted from the Rules and Register 
Book. 






CHAPTER XVI. 

LTHOUGH, from the commencement of 
the Society's existence, it was styled a 
Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 
yet for many years afterwards there was no provision 
made for the survey of ships abroad. Applications 
had been made at different times for appointment to 
the post of Surveyor at one or other of the principal 
foreign seaports, but the Committee had never acceded 
thereto. 

From a very early period in the history of 
British North America and the United States, ship- 
building was an important industr}% being, doubtless, 
fostered by the abundance and cheapness of the 
fir and oak timber on the uncleared lands. And, 
although the oaks were inferior to those of the West 
of Europe, and the firs no more durable than such 
timber is anywhere, yet, as the available dimensions 
were considerable, the deficiency in strength and 
durability was largely compensated for by the extra 
scantlings employed. 

The earliest statistics published by the Society 
show that the number of new vessels built in the 
" British Plantations," as they were termed, was by 



S^ 




io6 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

no means small, even when compared with those 
built in this country. The modes of construction 
were not, however, very good. Men who tilled the 
land in the summer addressed themselves to ship- 
building during the hard Canadian winter, when agri- 
cultural operations were necessarily at a standstill. 
There was consequently a great need for skilled 
supervision in the construction of these vessels, 
and so early as 185 1 a letter was received by the 
Secretary from St. John, New Brunswick, stating that 
the written authority and guarantee of several respect- 
able shipowners in St. John had been given for the 
sum of ;!^300 a year during five years, as a basis 
for the appointment of a Surveyor to the Society at 
that port. 

It soon became apparent that in the North Amer^ 
can Colonies there was a wide field for the Society's 
usefulness. In 1852 a Surveyor was appointed for 
Quebec and the River St. Lawrence, and in the 
following year another officer was placed at St. 
John, New Brunswick. These appointments were 
quickly followed by others. Two Assistant-Surveyors, 
one for each port, were sent out within the next 
two years ; and when, in the course of two more 
years, these officers were assigned separate districts 
of their own, — one becoming Surveyor of a newly- 
opened surveying district at Prince Edward Island, 
and the other being allotted the Miramichi district, — 
the vacancies caused by their removal were filled 
up by additional appointments, thus making no less 
than six Surveyors to the Society stationed in North 
America. 



A finals of Lloyd's Register. 107 

In 1856 the Committee appointed a Surveyor for 
Holland and Belgium, and selected for the office 
Mr. Pretious, already on the Society's staff, who 
remained until 1861, when he was recalled. 

No further steps towards the appointment of 
Surveyors on the Continent seem to have been taken 
until 1866, when Mr. L. Meyer was appointed as 
Surveyor for Holland and Belgium, residing at 
Antwerp. 

Early in the year 1868 a memorial, forwarded 
by thirty merchants and shipowners in Holland, was 
received by the Committee, suggesting the appoint- 
ment of a resident Surveyor at Rotterdam. Six 
months afterwards Mr. Meyer recommended that 
the deputies or agents appointed by him at Amster- 
dam, Rotterdam, and Veendam, should be appointed 
Assistant-Surveyors. In January, 1869, this recom- 
mendation was acted upon, and, shortly after, these 
assistants were made independent officers. 

Earlier in the same year an English Surveyor was 
sent out to Shanghai as the Society's officer, he 
being the first representative of the Register on the 
continent of Asia. In the following year Surveyors 
were appointed at Trieste, Ancona, and Venice. 
The succeeding year, 1871, saw Surveyors repre- 
senting the Society established at Bordeaux, Ham- 
burg, Melbourne, and Sydney; and in 1872 similar 
appointments were made at Copenhagen, Bergen, and 
Genoa. 

In 1872, Mr. Waymouth visited Genoa and 
inspected the vessels building there. Upon his 
return, he reported to the Committee that he had 



^ 




io8 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

found a large quantity of shipbuilding in progress 
at that port, and on his recommendation one of the 
Surveyors on the London staff was associated with 
the local Surveyor. 

At that time wood, and even iron shipbuilding — 
but especially the former — was in an active condition 
at the Italian ports. The materials for wood ship 
construction were both good and abundant, but the 
system of fastening was defective. It was extremely 
necessary, therefore, that the supervision of a Sur- 
veyor trained in the English practice should be given 
in the application of the Society's Rules in the Italian 
and Austrian ports. 

Additions to the number of the foreign Surveyors 
have been made from time to time, as the necessity 
for their appointment became apparent ; so that, whilst 
in 1870 there were five officers of this class, in 
1873 the number had risen to twenty-two. At the 
present time there are no fewer than sixty-six non- 
exclusive Surveyors abroad ; and the Society may now 
be considered fairly represented in all parts of the 
globe. 








CHAPTER XVII. 

[T will have been observed that the system of 
classification adopted even by the earliest 
Registers took coo^nisance of the state of 
a vessel's equipment, the relative efficiency being 
recorded with the character assigned to the hull. 

In 1834, when this Society was established, the 
Rules merely specified the number of anchors and 
the length of cable required for different sized 
vessels. This was supplemented in 1846 by the 
issue of instructions to the Surveyors, to see that all 
new chains supplied to classed vessels had been duly 
tested, and the strain marked on each length. 

In 1853 it was made imperative that certificates 
of test should be produced previously to the vessels 
being classed. 

Five years later, the Committee issued the 
present Table No. 22, showing the number and 
weight of anchors, and length and size of cables, 
hawsers, and warps for various sizes of sailing vessels 
and steamers. The Committee decided, at the same 
time, to allow a reduction to be made in the sizes 
of chain cables which satisfactorily withstood the 
Admiralty test at a public proving-machine. 



no Annals of Lloyd's Register, 



In 1862 the Committee introduced the Rule re- 
quiring all anchors and chain cables supplied for 
vessels, classed or proposed for classification in the 
Society's Register Book, to be tested and certified 
at a public machine, and in the same year at great 
cost they established the Society's Proving House at 
Poplar for the testing of chains and anchors. This 
establishment was abandoned by the Society in 1873, 
on account of the great expense it entailed. It was 
then leased by the Trinity House, who kept it open 
till 1875, when it was finally closed and the plant 
disposed of. 

The Committee's requirements were made more 
stringent in 1863, by the addition of a proviso that no 
testing would be recognised unless done at an estab- 
lishment belonging to a Corporation or open to an 
Inspector appointed by, and under the entire control of, 
Lloyd's Register ; but these regulations did not come 
into full operation till 1864. This arrangement 
continued for some years. 

In 1 87 1, the Laws respecting the proving and sale 
of chain cables and anchors were amended by an Act 
of Parliament, under which licences could be granted 
by the Board of Trade only to certain corporations or 
public bodies. Under this Act the testing certificates 
of the several joint-stock Companies owning Proving 
Houses could not be recognised. Consequently, the 
Committee, at the suggestion of the Board of Trade 
and with the consent of the Proprietors, agreed to 
undertake the sole control of the testing operations 
at such establishments. The licences for these works 
are granted to the Committee, who appoint a General 









Annals of Lloyd's Register. in 

Superintendent and also local Superintendents of 
Testing. 

The superintendence of the Committee has within 
recent years been extended to several Proving Houses 
previously under the management of Corporations or 
public bodies ; until at the present moment all but 
one of these Proving Establishments are under the 
control of the Society. 




r.^ 




CHAPTER XVIII. 




|T has already been stated that In the early 
days of steam vessels the Committee were 
satisfied, so far as the machinery and 
boilers of classed vessels were concerned, with 
receiving a report of their efficiency from a recog- 
nised competent Marine Engineer. 

The Rules Issued in 1834 contained the following 
provisions : — ■ 

" All seagoing Vessels navigated by S^eam shall be 
required to be surveyed izuice in each Year, when a 
character shall be assigned to them according to the 
report of survey as regards the classification of the hull 
and materials of the vessel. 

"With respect to the Boilers and Machinery, the 
Owners are required to produce to the Surveyors to this 
Society, at the above-directed surveys, a certificate from 
some competent Master Engineer, describing their state 
and condition at those periods." 

The machinery so certified was to be described by 
the letters " M.C." In the Register Book; but If no 
certificate of the condition of the engines and boilers 
were furnished as directed, then no character could be 
assigned. 




Amials of Lloyd's Register. 113 

A few years later the public mind was agitated by 
the serious loss of life which not infrequently occurred 
in connexion with boiler explosions on board ship, 
and steps were therefore taken by the Committee to 
secure a more rigid compliance with the Rules, quoted 
above, for the survey of steam vessels. 

This was the beginning of the Machinery Surveys 
which now constitute so important a feature in the 
Society's operations. Although duly appointed Engi- 
neer Surveyors to the Society were not employed till 
within recent years, it is interesting to observe that an 
application for the post of Engineer Surveyor was 
received by the Committee as far back as the year 
1838. 

In 1873, however, the number of steam vessels 
had increased so largely, that the Committee felt they 
would be no longer justified in classing them, without 
taking steps to assure themselves with the same 
certainty as in the case of the hulls of the vessels 
that the whole of the details of the machinery were 
in thoroughly safe condition. Accordingly, after 
the matter had been carefully considered by a Sub- 
Committee nominated for the purpose, the Committee, 
in Januar}^ 1874, decided to augment their surveying 
staff by appointing Engineer Surveyors. 

At the outset they were fortunate in securino- the 
services of Mr. William Parker as Chief Eno-ineer 
Surveyor, and, at the same time, they appointed as Ship 
and Engineer Surveyors two gentlemen who were 
experienced Marine Engineers. Within twelve months 
four other Engineer Surveyors were appointed. 

Since that time, as this branch of the Society's use- 

I 




rSN 



114 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

fulness has developed, the staff has been gradually 
increased, until at the present time it consists of one 
Chief Engineer Surveyor, with two assistants, twenty 
Engineer Surveyors, and seven Ship and Engineer 
Surveyors, all of whom are exclusively the servants of 
the Society, while there are also ten Engineer Sur- 
veyors and sixteen Ship and Engineer Surveyors 
stationed in foreign ports who are not employed 
solely by the Society. 

One of the earliest subjects to which the attention 
of the Engineer Surveyors was drawn was the com- 
paratively simple, but very important, matter of the 
arrangement of sea cocks and pipes in connexion 
with the engines. In a large percentage of vessels, 
these were found to be so arranged that by careless- 
ness on the part of the engineers or firemen the 
cocks could be made to open a direct communication 
between the sea and the engine-room. This was so 
evidently a source of great danger to the vessel, that 
in all cases, as soon as the faulty arrangements were 
pointed out to the shipowners, they took steps to 
have them altered. There can be no doubt that this 
simple matter of faulty arrangement of pipes had 
previously been the cause of many mysterious founder- 
ings of steam vessels, while some vessels had even 
sunk from this cause when in dock. 

Those Engineer Surveyors who were stationed at 
ports where engines and boilers were being con- 
structed for vessels intended for classification, ex- 
amined them during construction, and reported in full 
detail the scantlings of the various parts of the 
machinery and boilers ; so that the Committee were 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 1 1 5 

early in possession of the practice of the principal 
Marine Engineers of the country, and by obtaining 
similar information in the cases of old vessels, in 
which the machinery had been proved by experience 
to be sufficient, they were soon able to formulate 
Rules for the strength of boilers, and these Rules im- 
mediately obtained the confidence of manufacturing 
Marine Engineers. They have since, of course, been 
slighdy modified from time to time, in accordance with 
the teachings of experience, or as the advancement 
of Engineering has introduced new conditions of 
construction. 

Although the Society's Rules are applicable to the 
existing practice of marine engineering, in no case 
have they been allowed to interfere with the intro- 
duction of improved methods of construction or 
application. The Rules, while so framed as to insure 
strength and safety in all respects, place no restriction 
upon the design or proportions of engines, and there- 
fore afford free scope for the skill and inventive 
ingenuity of the country. 

As regards novelties in engineering, it is the 
practice of the Committee in every case, before 
deciding upon a new departure, to carefully investigate 
the matter. When they are assured that ample safety 
is provided, the arrangement is sanctioned uncondi- 
tionally ; if the plan is such as to require further 
experience to prove its durability, or if the arrange- 
ment is of such a nature that its efficiency depends 
greatly upon increased attention being bestowed upon 
it, approval is given conditionally upon its being 
subject to frequent surveys ; and only in the event of 

I 2 




ii6 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

the proposal being altogether unsuitable would the 
Committee disallow it. This elasticity in the Rules 
which govern the Society's inspection of machinery 
has been greatly taken advantage of by enterprising 
engineers and shipowners. 

When the survey of machinery was first under- 
taken, the supervision, although sufficient in the main 
to ensure soundness of materials and good workman- 
ship, was not of so thorough and minute a description 
as that .at present exercised. Very soon, however, 
shipowners found its value, and made special requests 
for the Engineer Surveyors to pay particular attention 
to the details of engines building for them, and 
expressed their readiness to pay extra fees for the 
extra services they required. On consideration, the 
Committee sanctioned these surveys, the engine- 
makers in every case being perfectly willing, not 
only to allow such inspection to be made, but also to 
carefully consider any suggestions made by the Sur- 
veyors as to matters of detail which would, if 
carried out, be likely to add to the durability and 
efficiency of the machinery. 

This special supervision became so much appre- 
ciated, and necessitated so much additional labour on the 
part of the Surveyors, that the Committee, on enlarging 
the Engineering staff, thought that general satisfaction 
would be given by requiring that the machinery of all 
steam vessels built under special survey should be also 
constructed under special survey; and this requirement 
has been found to work so well, that at the present 
time not only is the machinery for all new vessels 
intended for classification built under special survey, 



but practically also all the renewals, both of engines 
and boilers, are carried out under special survey; 
whilst engines and boilers building for stock by several 
makers are now being specially surveyed during con- 
struction. 

Not the least important, and certainly by far the 
most arduous, duty of the Engineer Surveyors is that 
of the periodical surveys required to be held on the 
machinery of classed vessels. 

At each of the special surveys of steam vessels, 
the machinery and boilers have to be carefully 
examined in all important working parts ; and in 
addition to these surveys, the boilers are also sub- 
jected to special survey at shorter intervals, according 
to their age. After the boilers of a vessel are four 
years of age they are not allowed to run without 
re-survey for a longer period than two years, while 
after they are six years old they are required to be 
surveyed at least every year. 

To show the extent of the work undertaken by 
this branch of the Society, it will perhaps suffice to 
state that in August, 1878, there were 246 sets of 
engines and boilers being constructed under special 
survey. In the same month in 1879 there were 126, 
in 1880 there were 292, in 1881 there were 401, in 
1882 there were 456, and In 1883 there were 424. 
Besides these, there are at all times a large number 
of new boilers being made to replace those worn out 
in old vessels. 



CHAPTER XIX. 




HE improvements in the manufacture of 
steel previously to the year i860 led 
to attempts being made by several 
Shipbuilders to employ that material in the con- 
struction of ships. But the processes were not 
sufficiently perfected at the time to produce 
steel of a uniform and trustworthy character, fit 
for the purposes of the Shipbuilder and Shipowner. 
In 1862 applications were made for vessels to be 
classed which were about to be built of puddled 
steel ; but the Committee replied, that in the absence 
of experience regarding the durability of steel it was 
not in their power to sanction the proposal. 

In the case of a steam yacht of 2,400 tons built 
for the Viceroy of Egypt in 1864, under the survey 
of the Society's Surveyors, and constructed partly of 
steel, the Committee consented to a reduction being 
made in the steel scantlings, amounting to about one- 
fourth of the thicknesses allowed in an iron ship of 
the same size. In 1866 plans were submitted for 
building a vessel of 1,552 tons with Barrow hematite 
steel, the sectional area of the material to be two- 
thirds that required by the Rules for a similar vessel 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 119 

if built of iron. Upon this proposal, the Committee 
decided, on certain conditions, to class the vessel on 
completion as " Experimental." 

In 1867 a report was made to the Committee 
by some of the principal Surveyors to the Society, 
upon the steel manufactured at Barrow-in-Furness, 
by the Bessemer process. Having considered this 
report, the Committee agreed to class ships built 
under special survey of steel of approved quality. 
The notation "Experimental" was, however, to 
be made against the characters of such vessels 
in the Register Book. A reduction was allowed 
in the thickness of the plates, frames, &c., of 
ships built of steel, not exceeding one-fourth the 
thickness prescribed for iron ships. It was required 
that the steel should be able to withstand a tensile 
strain of not less than 30 tons to the square inch. 
This appears to be the first occasion upon which 
tests were applied to steel, so as to enable the Com- 
mittee to formulate regulations for its use in classed 
ships. 

Further tests were made early in the following 
year upon steel manufactured at Bolton-le- Moors, but 
the results were not so satisfactor}'-, the report stating 
that the quality of the steel would not warrant the 
Surveyors in recommending it for any reduction in 
scantling from that allowed for iron of good qualit}'. 

Several years were allowed to elapse before the 
question of the suitability of steel for shipbuilding 
purposes again occupied public attention. About the 
year 1877 there occurred what has not inaptly been 
termed the " resurrection " of steel. 

^e gf^ 



The objections made to steel during the earlier 
days of its manufacture were two-fold. In the first 
place, the material was of a hard, brittle, and untrust- 
worthy character ; whilst, even if the quality of the 
metal had been above reproach, the price was quite 
beyond that which would have enabled it to enter 
into competition with iron. 

During the interval between 1867 and 1877, 
however, great changes had taken place. Improve- 
ments had been made in the manufacture of steel 
by the Bessemer process, and a new method of 
manufacture, viz., the Siemens-Martin or open-hearth 
process, had been introduced. The production, at 
a greatly reduced cost, of a mild and ductile material 
differing from iron only in being superior to it was 
thus rendered possible, and the present development 
of the use of mild steel for the construction of ships 
and boilers may be dated from this time. 

A review of the action of the Society in this 
matter will show that the careful investigations made 
by the Society's Officers, and the subsequent approval 
of the material by the Committee, had the effect of 
largely aiding its introduction by giving the public 
confidence in its suitability for the purposes intended. 

The first proposal to use this new steel for classed 
vessels was made by Messrs. John Elder & Co., 
of Glasgow, who, in 1877, commenced to build two 
paddle-steamers of that material, under the survey of 
the Society's officers, to the order of the London, 
Brighton, and South Coast Railway Company. In 
the same year the Wallsend Slipway Company, of 
Newcastle, submitted a plan of the first marine boiler 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 121 

proposed to be made entirely of steel. Before giving 
their approval in these cases, the Committee required 
a series of tests to be applied to the material intended 
for use in the structures, in order to ascertain its 
suitability. In the case of the boiler, tests were 
also applied, in order to ascertain the actual strength 
of the flat plates stayed as proposed, and of the 
riveted seams of its shell. 

At the same time the Society's professional 
advisers visited the principal steel manufactories in 
the kingdom, as also the principal establishments 
where steel had been used for boiler purposes, the 
material having already by this time come into 
very extended use for locomotive and stationary 
boilers. 

At each of these places information was gained 
as to the properties of the material and the con- 
ditions required to be complied with in working 
it in order to Insure satisfactory results. The infor- 
mation gained was freely placed at the disposal of all 
interested in the subject ; and so much confidence in 
the material was the result, that it became freely used 
for both shipbuilding and boiler-making. In the case 
of boilers, it was used in many parts for which the 
most expensive brands of iron before had been 
exclusively employed. 

During the earlier periods of its use there were a 
few failures of steel plates, which had at first a mys- 
terious appearance, and which would undoubtedly 
have thrown so much suspicion upon the material, 
unless they had been promptly and exhaustively 
investigated, and their true cause discovered, that its 



use would have been seriously retarded. The causes 
of failure were in each instance investigated by the 
Society's officers, and were clearly traced to faulty 
manipulation, and not to defective material. Increased 
experience with steel has, however, led to its proper- 
ties being better understood, and the Engineer and the 
Shipbuilder are enabled to handle it now without fear 
of such failures occurring. 

One great cause of the confidence which is felt in 
mild steel is no doubt the fact that the steel plates are 
all tested before leaving the manufactory, and are 
required to be capable of withstanding certain specified 
tests. These tests are witnessed by the Society's 
Surveyors, and they are so comprehensive that material 
which will withstand them can with confidence be 
used for any part of a ship or boiler. 

The result of the use of steel in shipbuilding is 
a general reduction of 20 per cent, below the scant- 
lings prescribed in the Rules for Iron Ships. In 
the case of boilers, in which a reduction is also 
allowed in the thickness of the shell plating and stays, 
there ensued a great increase of steam pressures. Ten 
years ago the common steam pressure in new boilers 
was from 60 lb. to 65 lb. per square inch, 75 lb. 
being then looked upon as very high. 

These limits of pressure were arrived at by reason 
of the difficulty of properly working the thick boiler 
shell plates which higher pressures would have neces- 
sitated. The use of steel of greater strength than 
iron admits of the same thickness of plates being 
sufficient for much higher pressures, and now very 
few boilers for new engines are constructed to carry a 



less working pressure than 90 lb. per square inch, 
while very many are made to work at 150 lb. per 
square inch. 

These increased pressures result in a greater 
economy of fuel consumption than is possible with 
lower pressures. 

The increase in the use of steel for shipbuilding 
during recent years is shown by the following account 
of the amount of the tonnage built of steel under the 
Society's inspection : — 





Tonnage of 




Year. 


Steel Ships. 


Steel Steamers. 


Total Tonnage 


1880 . 


.. 1,342 . 


.. 34,031 .. 


• 35,373 


1881 . 


.. 3.167 . 


39,240 .. 


. 42,407 


1882 . 


.. 12,477 • 


.. ii3>364 •. 


• 125,841 


1883 . 


.. 15.703 • 


.. 150,725 .. 


. 166,428 



About two years ago, another departure occupied 
the attention of the Society's principal officers. Steel- 
makers had so far improved upon the methods used 
for making heavy steel castings that they stated these 
could now be made more trustworthy than heavy iron 
forgings, both for engine work and stern and rudder 
frames. 

The processes of making these castings were 
specially investigated, and the quality of the resulting 
material was ascertained, and several of the various 
articles which had been manufactured were tested to 
destruction. As a result, the use of these castings 
has been sanctioned by the Committee for crank-shafts 
and several other important parts of engines, and also 



^•r 



for stern-frames, rudders, and rudder-frames. In 
order that these castings may be accepted, it is neces- 
sary that they shall be found to be sound and free 
from blow-holes, and that test pieces cast with them 
shall be found by actual test to have a tensile strength 
of not more than thirty tons per square inch. It is 
also required that other test pieces, cast on them and 
planed to an inch and a quarter square, shall bend 
cold without fracture through an angle of 90 degrees 
over a circular arc having a radius not greater than 
an inch and three quarters. These tests are so severe 
that none but material of great ductility can withstand 
them. The whole of the shafts, frames, &c., which 
have been approved of by the Society upon these 
conditions have so far given satisfaction, and have 
justified the confidence reposed in them. 

The results of all tests upon steel for shafts, 
frames, &c., as well as those made on a large 
number of riveted joints of steel plates, have been 
freely published, together with other matters of interest 
to Shipbuilders and Engineers, by means of official 
reports and of papers read at the various Technical 
Institutions ; and in this way much good has no doubt 
been done in disseminating useful knowledge regarding 
the capabilities of the new materials and the most 
approved methods of manipulating them. 



The appointment In 1882 of Inspectors of Forgings 
may be mentioned as a more recent extension of the 
Society's operations. Previous to that time large 
forgings intended for classed vessels were inspected 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 125 

after delivery at the shipbuilding or engineering 
establishment in a finished state. 

Experience had shown, however, that serious 
defects might exist in Forgings, which it would be 
impossible to discover by an examination of them 
when finished, while it had also been found that 
the methods adopted in welding large forgings 
were in many instances open to much objection. 
With a view to the improvement of the methods 
of construction, and to the prevention, so far as 
possible, of the use of defective forgings, the 
Committee decided to appoint Officers who, from 
their special training, should possess the qualifi- 
cations necessary for the careful inspection of all 
large forgings during the process of manufacture. 




CHAPTER XX. 




PON the opening of the Royal School of 
Naval Architecture and Marine Engineer- 
ing at South Kensington in 1864, pro- 
vision was made for the training there of students 
from private establishments. Few, however, availed 
themselves of the opportunity thus offered for obtain- 
ing a scientific acquaintance with the principles of 
their profession, and as a consequence the educa- 
tional resources of the School were chiefly devoted 
to the training of Admiralty students. The transfer 
of the school to the Royal Naval College at Green- 
wich in 1873 did not make any difference in this 
respect ; and, as it was yearly becoming a matter of 
greater importance that the theoretical principles of 
Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering should 
be more carefully studied in Shipbuilding and Marine 
Engineering establishments, the Committee of the 
Society resolved in 1877 to grant the sum of ;^ioo 
per annum towards the maintenance of two private 
students at the College, viz., one in Naval Architec- 
ture and one in Marine Engineering. 

In 1878 the grant was increased to ^150 per 
annum, in order to establish an annual scholarship of 



'^ 



sJ 






Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



127 



;^5o a year, tenable for three years, to be competed 
for by private students of Naval Architecture or 
Marine Engineering at the Royal Naval College. 
The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, who had 
also founded a similar scholarship, accepted this offer 
of the Committee, and issued regulations as to the 
competition. Only British subjects are eligible, and 
the candidates have to undergo a competitive exami- 
nation in mathematics and the principles of their 
profession. 

It is to be regretted that no candidates have 
proved themselves to be qualified for either the 
Admiralty or Lloyd's Scholarship. The Committee 
have at different times appointed graduates of the 
Royal Naval College as Surveyors to the Society, 
and at the present time there are nine of the Society's 
Surveyors in different parts of the kingdom who were 
trained at that institution. 





CHAPTER XXI. 



I 


■ 

D 


1 



|N 1877 the Committee, upon the invitation 
of a number of leading Yacht Owners 
and Builders, undertook the special 
classification of yachts, and issued Rules and 
Regulations for their construction. The necessity 
for a system of classification for yachts similar 
to that which had been applied so long, and with 
such satisfactory results, to merchant ships, suggested 
itself to gentlemen specially interested in yachting. 
Classes had been assigned for many years prior to 
that date to yachts which had been built in accor- 
dance with the Society's Regulations for the construc- 
tion of merchant vessels ; but it is obvious those 
Regulations were not suited to vessels of the former 
description. 

The matter did not, however, take any definite 
shape until 1877, when, through the instrumentality of 
Mr. Dixon Kemp, a Committee of Yacht Owners and 
Builders was formed, with the object of taking steps 
to institute a Yachting Registry. It was ultimately 
decided that advantage should be taken of the existing 
organisation and staff of Lloyd's Register, and the 
Committee of this Society consented to undertake the 




















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A7inals of Lloyd's Register. 129 

duty. A Register Book, devoted exclusively to this 
description of vessel, has since been issued annually, 
and has met with a large measure of success, the Sub- 
scribers thereto, who numbered about 320 on the first 
issue of the volume, having risen to nearly 1,000 within 
the space of six years. The Book contains very full 
particulars of all British Yachts from the largest to 
the smallest, whether classed or not, and, as much 
information as can be obtained of those owned 
abroad; also a list of British and Foreign Yacht 
Clubs, and coloured plates illustrative of their 
respective Flags, an index of Signal Letters, and an 
alphabetical list of the names and addresses of the 
owners. 

Owners have largely availed themselves of the 
advantages of classification of yachts by the Society, 
no less than about 600 vessels having come under 
the inspection of the Society's Surveyors since the 
institution of the Yacht Register. The symbols of 
classification are similar to those employed in the 
classing of merchant ships. The Rules provide for 
the construction and periodical examination of wood, 
iron, and composite Yachts. 

As another indication of the tendency of the 
Society's operations to spread beyond the limits of 
ordinary sea-going Mercantile Shipping, attention 
may be called to the frequent requests which have 
been made during late years for the Survey and 
Classification of Fishing-smacks, Trawlers, &c., to 
which vessels a particular class, " for fishing purposes," 
has been assigned. 



^- 





CHAPTER XXII. 

T has already been remarked that a column 
containing " the feet of the draught of 
water when loaded" was inserted in the 
third earliest copy of a Register Book, dated 1774- 
75-76, and this column was continued down to the 
time of the establishment of Lloyd's Register on its 
present basis in 1834. No information is obtainable 
as to how and by whom the load-draught was deter- 
mined ; but, as the draught is given in all cases in 
round numbers, it appears probable that it was fur- 
nished, not with the object of placing any limit on the 
loading, but rather as an index to the size of the 
vessels. 

On the institution of this Society in 1834, the 
record of draught of water was not inserted in the 
Register Book, and no step appears to have been 
taken by the Society in connexion with the subject 
of the load-lirre until 1870. In that year, on the 
introduction into the Rules of provision for the con- 
struction of vessels of the awning-decked type to meet 
the requirements bf trade, such vessels were required, 
in order to prevent overloading, to have scuppers 
through the sides, &<.nd ports to discharge water at 



Aimals of Lloyd s Register. 1 3 1 

the main deck, so that in no case could they be laden 
to the level of that deck. In some instances, how- 
ever, the ports and scuppers at the main deck were 
permanently closed by the Owners, to enable the 
vessels to be loaded deeper. Upon this fact becoming 
known to the Committee, they determined, in February, 
1873, to suspend the characters of all awning-decked 
vessels having the main-deck scuppers closed. 

In August of the same year the scuppers in such 
vessels were allowed to be closed, provided a load- 
drauorht ao^reed to bv the Committee were inserted 
in the R.egister Book and on the Certificate ; and, in 
the Rules issued in 1874, the load-line was made 
compulsory for all new awning-decked vessels. As 
the practice of closing the scuppers at the main deck, 
without a fixed load-line being assigned, still con- 
tinued, the Committee, in December of the following 
year, resolved that a load-line should be determined 
by the Society for every awning-decked vessel classed 
in the Register Book. This decision was followed by 
the requirement that a diamond-shaped mark, with 
the letters L, R, placed one on either side of it, should 
be painted on the vessel's sides at the draught 
approved by the Committee. 

So important a step as the enforcement of a fixed 
load-line, retrospective in its action, was not allowed 
to pass unchallenged. A well-known firm of ship- 
owners, owning several vessels of the awning-decked 
type, declined to comply with the Committee's require- 
ments ; and, on the characters of their vessels being 
expunged from the Register Book, they commenced 
a test-action against the Society in respect of one of 

K 2 



/^^ 



W. 



132 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

them, damages being laid at ;!^ 1,000. The case was 
decided in the Society's favour upon all material 
points. In summing up, the Judge observed that : — 

" The Pursuers' case depends on the validity of their 
proposition, that the facts averred by them imply a con- 
tract between them and the Defenders with respect to 
the .... whereby the classification of that vessel on 
the Register shall be preserved so long as the Rules and 
Regulations of the Association in force at the date of the 
original registration in 1872 are complied with. I can- 
not sustain this proposition." 

And added that — 

" It would be a grave misfortune, and greatly impair 
public confidence in the Association, if a Court of Law 
were to hold that they were under implied contract 
with respect to all ships already classified which com- 
pelled them to continue the classification after they had 
become satisfied that it was undeserved, and therefore 
misleading." 

The judgment was appealed against, but was 
upheld, on appeal. The right of the Committee to 
make such alterations in the Society's Rules as expe- 
rience may show to be necessary, and to apply the 
same retrospectively, was thereby fully established. 

The importance of this decision, as affecting the 
freedom of action of the Society, cannot be over- 
estimated. It is, perhaps, not too much to say that, 
had the verdict been for the Pursuers, the Society's 
influence for good upon the Mercantile Marine would 
have been greatly curtailed. 

In the issue of the Society's Rules in 1870, which 
contained for the first time a reference to awning- 
decked vessels, provision was also made for the con- 



struction of spar-decked vessels " for passengers only." 
No scuppers were required to be fitted to the main 
deck of these vessels, but the freeboard considered 
suitable was indicated. This freeboard was, however, 
in no sense compulsor}-, and the Rule disappeared in 
the following year, when the description of vessel to 
which it was applicable ceased to be constructed. 

In the meantime, while the Society had been 
taking steps to prevent improper loading of awning- 
decked vessels, the Board of Trade obtained 
powers from Parliament to detain overladen vessels 
as unseaworthy, and in November, 1875, the Board 
applied to the Committee for assistance in laying 
down elementary principles concerning freeboard and 
draught of water. Representatives were eventually 
appointed, and a Committee formed, consisting of 
nominees of the Society, of the Board of Trade, and 
of the Liverpool Underwriters' Registry. 

The Committee met, but it did not appear that 
opinions upon the subject of a load-line for all 
vessels were so matured as to give the hope of an 
agreement being arrived at by its members, and the 
Committee was accordingly dissolved. 

Among the members of Lloyd's Register Com- 
mittee, however, a growing desire was manifested 
to grapple with this intricate subject, and many 
discussions took place regarding it. They ultimately 
arrived at the conclusion that a certain percentage of 
surplus buoyancy for each particular ship would form 
the proper basis for a load-line. To ascertain the 
practice in regard to loading vessels in this country, 
the Society's Surveyors were instructed to take note 



w 



134 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

of the immersion of vessels at the various ports, and 
their reports upon the subject were duly forwarded 
to the Committee. At the request of the Committee, 
many of the principal shipowners furnished particulars 
.of the draughts to which they loaded their vessels. 
This information was being accumulated for a con- 
siderable time preparatory to its being analysed, with 
a view to the construction of Tables of Freeboard, 
when in August, 1880, the Board of Trade inquired 
of the Committee whether the measures adopted for 
fixing a conditional load-line for awning-decked ships 
could with propriety be extended to other classes of 
vessels. 

The Committee, having by this time received much 
valuable information from their Surveyors and the 
Shipowners with whom they had communicated, and 
having besides In their sole possession full particulars 
of the strength and mode of construction of the 
various vessels, Instructed Mr. Martell, the Chief 
Surveyor, to frame Tables of Freeboard suitable for 
every type of vessel. 

Mr. Martell, who had already given much atten- 
tion to this subject, and had, so long before as 1873, 
prepared Tables of Freeboard, based upon the prin- 
ciple of reserve buoyancy, which he laid before the 
Royal Commission on Unseaworthy Ships, proceeded 
to give effect to the Committee's instructions. So 
laborious, however, was the undertaking, it was not 
until January, 1882, that the information obtained had 
been exhaustively analysed and preliminary Tables 
framed and submitted to the Committee. 

The principle on which the Tables for Flush- 



<^- 



m 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 135 

decked Steam and Sailing Vessels were prepared 
was that of allowing a fixed percentage of the total 
bulk of the vessel above the load-draught as reserve 
buoyancy ; and to render this principle practicable for 
vessels already built, and for which no accurate 
drawings were obtainable, the method of employing 
coefficients of fineness, derived from the registered 
under-deck tonnage and the principal dimensions, 
in connexion with the moulded depth, as previously 
employed by Mr. Martell, was adopted. For spar- 
decked vessels, the basis was one of strength of 
construction, and the freeboard arrived at was that 
which calculations showed would admit of vessels of 
this type being strained at sea no more than vessels 
of the same dimensions of the three-decked type. 

The basis of the Tables was accepted by the 
Committee ; but, prior to approving the scale 
of freeboard proposed, the Committee submitted 
the Tables to the judgment of Shipowners, Ship- 
builders, and other competent persons throughout the 
country, and appealed to them for information as to 
their own experience in the loading of vessels. 

In response to the Committee's invitation, a ver}' 
large amount of valuable information was obtained, 
and, after the same had been carefully analysed, 
the Tables were further modified. As amended, they 
were again laid before the Committee, and, after 
much deliberation, were finally approved and issued 
to the public in August, 1882. 

The Committee, at the same time, intimated that 
they were prepared to undertake the duty of assigning ' 
suitable freeboards to all types of vessels, classed or 



'^^. 



136 



Annals of Lloyd's Register 



unclassed, for record in the Register Book, if requested 
by the owners to do so, on the basis of the approved 
Tables, and that each vessel would be dealt with on 
her merits. To carry their decision into effect, the 
Committee determined to provide a column in the 
Register Book for the record of freeboard and moulded 
depth. 

The Tables have now been in operation for some 
two years, and the measure of their success may 
be gauged by the fact that during that period the 
Committee have assigned load-lines to nearly i,ooo 
vessels, in addition to more than 200 awning-decked 
vessels which have a fixed load-line as a condition of 
classification. 




/S 





CHAPTER XXIII. 

N the autumn of 1882 the important subject 
of the representation of outports on the 
Committee of Lloyd's Register again occu- 
pied considerable attention. The arrangement then 
existing, it will be remembered, had been in operation 
since 1 864, when the privilege of being represented on 
the Committee was first conceded to outports. Under 
that plan there were fifteen outport members out of a 
General Committee of forty-one members. 

During the interval that had elapsed since the 
introduction of that arrangement, great changes had 
taken place in the Mercantile Marine of the country 
and the relative importance of ports. Some ports 
which were then comparatively insignificant had 
acquired great importance, whilst entirely new centres 
of shipping had also sprung up. 

The Committee, therefore, felt that the time 
had arrived to take into careful consideration the 
advisability of re-adjusting and enlarging the repre- 
sentation of the outports, in order that the constituent 
parts of the Committee might be brought into closer 
accord with the altered conditions of the Mercantile 
Marine. 




138 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

Accordingly, a special Sub - Committee was 
appointed to inquire into the whole subject, and to 
report thereon to the General Committee, and full 
statistics bearing on the question were obtained. This 
Sub-Committee were occupied with the subject for a 
long time, and after very full deliberation they decided 
to recommend the General Committee to raise the 
maximum number of members from forty-one to fifty 
— the additional members thus created to be distri- 
buted amongst the outports. 

This proposal came before the General Committee 
at a special meeting, on the 26th April, 1883, when it 
was finally adopted. The extension of the represen- 
tation of outports on the Committee was carried out 
in such a manner as to preserve as far as practicable 
the existing relative numbers of Merchants, Ship- 
owners, and Underwriters, in accordance with the 
original constitution of the Society. 

It will be observed, from the particulars given 
below, that the arrangement of electoral districts is 
one which practically embraces the whole of the ports 
in the kingdom. Jn any case of a district which 
comprises several ports, the election of the member 
or members is entrusted to the delegates from local 
bodies, such as Shipowners' Societies or Chambers of 
Commerce. Under the latest modifications of the 
Rules relating to representation on the Committee, 
the various members are thus apportioned: — 

London : Twenty-six members — namely, eight 
merchants, eight underwriters and eight shipowners, 
and, in addition, the Chairman of Lloyd's and the 



€^- 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 1 39 

Chairman of the General Shipowners' Society, as 
ex-officio members. 

Liverpool : Eight members — namely, four to repre- 
sent shipowners and four to represent underwriters. 

Glasgow : Four members — namely, one to repre- 
sent shipowners, one merchants, and two under- 
writers. 

The Tyne District : Three members — namely, one 
to represent shipowners, one merchants, and one 
underwriters. 

Hartlepool, Stockton, and Middlesbro' District : 
Two members — namely, one to represent shipowners 
and one underwriters and merchants. 

Sunderland : Two members — namely, one to re- 
present shipowners and one underwriters and mer- 
chants. 

Cardiff, Newport, and Swansea District : One 
member to represent shipowners and merchants. 

Leith, Dundee, and Aberdeen District : One 
member to represent shipowners and merchants. 

Greenock : One member to represent ship- 
owners and merchants. 

Hull : One member to represent merchants. 

Bristol : One member to represent merchants. 




^^ 




CHAPTER XXIV. 




[HE Committee have always given a liberal 
consideration to the circumstances of 
officers who, from advanced age or other 
cause, have found themselves unequal to the duties 
required of them ; and provision has been made to 
enable such officers, on their retirement, to pass their 
declining years in comfort. Nor has the generosity 
of the Committee stopped with the officers, but in 
very many cases it has been extended to the widows 
and families of officers who have died in the Society's 
service. This practice was continued until the year 
1872, when Rules were adopted requiring all officers 
who entered the service after that time to assure their 
lives in the sum of ^1,000, the Committee under- 
taking, on behalf of the Society, to pay a part of the 
premiums. 

Mr. Waymouth, the Secretary, feeling strongly 
that the operation of the Life Assurance Rules was 
not satisfactory, and that the absence of a setded 
scheme for the retirement of officers when incapaci- 
tated for the performance of their duties was pre- 
judicial to the true interests of the Society, drew up 
a Memorandum on the subject, which he brought 



Armals of Lloyds Register. 141 

informally under the notice of some members of the 
Committee in March, 1883. His representations were 
favourably entertained, and he was authorised to pre- 
pare a scheme embodying his views for the Com- 
mittee's consideration. 

The Committee subsequently gave the subject 
a very lengthened and careful consideration, and, 
after various proposals had been discussed, Rules, 
framed in accordance with Mr. Waymouth's sugges- 
tions, providing for the superannuation of the 
Society's servants, and for the granting of annuities 
to their widows and orphans, were adopted on 
the 14th February, 18S4, subject to the verification 
by an actuary of the estimated cost of the operation 
of the scheme. The accuracy of the estimates sub- 
mitted to the Committee having been substantially 
confirmed by an actuary, the Pension Scheme was 
finally approved, and the regulations relating to 
life assurance were cancelled at a special meeting of 
the General Committee on the 7th June, 1884. 

According to the Rules adopted by the Committee, 
every officer in the Society, on attaining the age of 
60 years, or earlier if incapacitated by accident or 
disease, is entitled during the Committee's pleasure to 
a pension regulated by length of service and amount of 
salary ; and in addition provision is made for annuities 
according to a definite scale to widows and orphans. 




-J 



m 




CHAPTER XXV. 




[HE Society's Register Book has continued 
to receive such alterations and additions as 
experience has suggested, and its value to 
the commercial community as a book of reference has 
consequently been greatly enhanced. In the volume 
for 1874 the practice of recording unclassed vessels was 
revived. As previously stated, the Register Book, as 
issued in 1834, contained a record of all British ships 
of 50 tons and above, whether classed or not, but a 
few years after those unclassed were omitted, and 
from 1839 till 1874 the Book consisted of classed 
vessels only. 

In the latter year it was determined to include 
all unclassed vessels of 100 tons and upwards 
registered in the United Kingdom, and those 
of large tonnage owned abroad. Then also, for the 
first time, were introduced useful particulars of the 
machinery of steamers. Two years later an alpha- 
betical list of the names and addresses of the Owners 
was added, and this information has been found of 
much service as a Directory of Managing Ship- 
owners. And so with succeeding years ; scarcely one 
has passed without some addition, more or less im- 



^ 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 143 

portant, having been made to the mass of particulars 
which make up the Book, the latest being the 
insertion in the 1883 edition of the particulars of Drj- 
Docks and patent Slipways at all ports throughout the 
world. 

A specimen page of the current edition of the 
Register Book shown on the opposite side illustrates 
the vast improvements introduced into the work since 
1834, a page of the volume for which year has already 
been reproduced. 

The reports of survey which are being constantly 
received from the Society's Surveyors all over the 
world now amount to about 8,000 in a year. These 
are duly dealt with by a Sub-Committee of Classifica- 
tion who meet twice every week for that purpose. 
The numerous alterations and additions arisinof from 
these surveys are made known to the Subscribers to 
the Register Book at frequent intervals. In the case 
of those resident in London, the old practice of posting 
the books weekly with types is still followed, and a 
staff of one Superintendent and twenty-two Posters 
with five Messengers is employed in the Society's 
office for that purpose. Similar information is con- 
veyed to Subscribers in the Provinces and abroad by 
means of Supplements issued fortnightly. 

As a comparison between 1834 and the present 
day it may be interesting to state that the number 
of Subscribers in 1834 was 721, and at the present 
time is nearly 3,500. The largest vessel classed 
in the Society's Register Book in 1834 was the ship 
George the Fourth, 1,438 tons, classed 12AI; while 
the largest in the current issue is the screw-steamer 



T 



^J 




144 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



City of Rome, 8,144 tons, classed lOOAl. More- 
over, in 1834, comparatively few vessels were above 
1,000 tons, and by very far the largest number 
ranged from 500 tons down to 50 tons ; while 
at the present time there are no less than 195 
vessels above 3,000 tons classed in the Society's 
Register, their collective burthen being 747,470 tons. 
Of these, 14 vessels are above 5,000 tons, and have a 
collective tonnage of 78,114 tons ; and 62 vessels are 
above 4,000 tons, and have a collective tonnage of 
287,227 tons. 




CHAIRMAN. 
FROM 1835 TO 1881. 






CHAPTER XXVI. 




fS already stated, Mr. Thomas Chapman was 
elected to the office of Chairman in the 
year 1835. This position he held unin- 
terruptedly from that time until 1881, and it is 
impossible to over-estimate the value of his services 
to the Society during this long period. Apart from 
the excellent judgment he displayed at every conjunc- 
ture, his urbanity of manner and conciliatory disposi- 
tion, combined with the tact with which he guided 
the deliberations of the Committee, rendered him 
peculiarly fitted for the important position of Chair- 
man ; and to his personal influence, during his long 
presidency, the Society owes much of its great and 
continued prosperity. 

Upon the occasion of Mr. Chapman's being 
elected to the office of Chairman for the forty-second 
time in 1876, the Members of the Committee generally 
evinced a desire to manifest, in some way that 
would be gratifying to Mr. Chapman the personal 
regard and esteem they entertained for him, and also 
their high appreciation of the distinguished ability 



•^J! 



146 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

with which he had discharged the duties of Chairman, 
and of the very eminent services rendered by him to 
the Society and through it to the Mercantile Marine 
of the country during a period of upwards of forty 
years. It was therefore determined, in May, 1876, to 
present to him a piece of plate bearing an appropriate 
inscription. The presentation was made at a dinner at 
the Albion Tavern, Aldersgate Street, on Wednesday, 
the 6th July. 

The Right Hon. George J. Goschen, M.P., in pro- 
posing the toast of " Prosperity to Lloyd's Register," 
on that occasion, attributed " the great public con- 
fidence placed in the Society to the able manner 
in which it has been presided over, the single- 
ness of mind with which the Committee and Exe- 
cutive performed their duties, and the integrity of its 
Surveying staff." A strong feeling had also been 
shown by the Members that they should subscribe 
for a portrait of the Chairman, and his consent to 
sit for it having been obtained, Mr. E. J. Gregory, 
A.R.A., was chosen to execute the painting, which 
now adorns the Board-room in the Society's 
office. 

The presentation made by the Committee 
offered a fitting occasion to the Surveying staff to 
give an expression of their own regard for the Chair- 
man, and a suggestion to this effect having been 
made by the Chief Surveyor to his colleagues, it was 
received by them with hearty approval, and the 
whole staff of the Society's Surveyors at home and 
abroad combined to mark their esteem for the Chair- 
man. The clerical staff of the Society, animated with 



&i« 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 147 

like feelings, also determined to ask his acceptance 
of a testimonial at their hands. On the 5th of October, 
1876, these presentations were made, and the Chair- 
man, in accepting the same, gave an interesting 
account of the Society's career during the long period 
of upwards of forty years that he had presided 
over it. 

Mr. Chapman continued to fill the office of Chair- 
man until 1 88 1, when the claims of advancing years 
induced him to retire, after rendering about forty- 
seven years of most excellent service to the Society 
and to the Mercantile Marine of the country. 

On Mr. Chapman's retirement, Mr. W. H. Tindall, 
son of the late Mr. W. Tindall, who was so pro- 
minent a Member of the Committee at the 
formation of the Society, was elected to the office of 
Chairman. 

Mr. W. H. Tindall had been a Member of the 
Committee since 1856, and had acted for eleven 
years as Deputy -Chairman, in which office he was 
succeeded by Mr. Michael Wills, a member of twenty- 
one years' standing. 

Mr. Tindall and Mr. Wills still occupy the 
above - named offices, while that of Chairman of 
the Sub - Committees of Classification is filled by 
Mr. T. B. Walker, who has presided over these 
Committees since the year 1870, and has been a 
member of the General Committee during twenty 
years. 

The following is a list of the Chairmen, Deputy- 
Chairmen, and Chairmen of the Sub-Committees of 
Classification since the formation of the Society in 

L 2 



f 



148 



Annals of Lloyd's Register, 



1834 ; also the periods during which they respectively 
filled their several offices : — 





NAMES. 


FROM 


UNTIL 


Chairmen <; 


(D. Carruthers 

1 T. Chapman, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

IW. H. Tindall 

/Crawford D. Kerr 

H. Blanchard 

William Tindall 


1834 
1835 
1881 j 

1834 

1835 
1838 

1853 
1857 
1861 
1871 

i88i| 

1834 
i860 

1870 1 


1835 
1881 

present 
time. 

1835 
1838 

1853 
1857 
1861 
1871 
1881 
present 
time. 

i860 

1870 

present 

time. 


Deputy- ^ 
Chairmen 


S. Ellerby 

Duncan Dunbar 

George Marshall 




W. H. Tindall 

\Michael Wills 


Chairmen of 


^ Tnhn "Rnhin^nn 


Committees J W. C. Harnett, F.S.A 

of ClaSSi- \ rr. n ITT- 11 

fication. (T. B. Walker 



In looking down the list of gentlemen who have 
sat upon the Committee during the past fifty years, we 
see many names which occur year after year. For 
instance, Mr. George Allfrey, Mr. George Hanson, and 
Mr. John Robinson, who were members of the Pro- 
visional Committee in 1834, continued to serve for 
thirty-six, twenty-seven, and twenty-six years respec- 
tively. Of the Permanent Committee, whose names 
appear in the Register Book for the year 1835, 
Mr. William Tindall, Mr. George Whitmore, and 
Mr. George F. Young, M.P., were also members 
during eighteen, twenty-six, and thirty-two years 



UK! . 




"m 



A finals of Lloyd's Register. 149 

respectively. As seen by the above list, Mr. 
Tindall was Deputy-Chairman during fifteen years 
of the time that he served upon the Committee. 

With other names, too, there occur those of Mr, W. 
Harnett, F.S.A., who sat from 1839 until 1870, during 
ten years of which he was Chairman of the Classifica- 
tion Sub-Committee ; Mr. G. Penning, who was a 
member during thirty-five years ; Mr. G. Hankey, 
who sat for a period of thirty years ; and Mr. W. 
Wilson Saunders, F.R.S., whose term of membership 
extended to thirty-two years. Besides the above, 
other prominent names occur, such as those of Mr. 
Duncan Dunbar and Mr. George Marshall, both of 
whom occupied the office of Deputy-Chairman. 

Amongst the earliest oflicers of the Society, we 
find the name of Mr. Nathaniel Symonds, who 
acted as Secretary to the Committee until January, 
'i^^ZT* when he was succeeded by Mr. Charles 
Graham, who had previously been in the service 
of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
Soon after Mr. Symonds's appointment followed 
that of Mr. Henry Adams, who had in 181 5 entered 
the service of the Register known as the Green 
Book, and who still (1884) occupies the position of 
Chief Clerk in this Society's office, — forming a living 
link between the Association which took its rise in 
the middle of last century and the present Society. 
Somewhat later Mr. George B. Seyfang (the late 
Secretary) was elected, he having been in the employ 
of the Society known as the Red Book for some 
years previously. The Superintendent of the posting 
of the Register Book and one or two of the Posters 



f^ 



ni 




150 Annals of Lloyd's Register. 

appear also to have been taken from the staff of the 
latter Registry. 

Mr. George Bayley was the earliest of the 
Society's principal Surveyors, and he continued to 
serve the Committee in that office from his appoint- 
ment in 1834 until his resignation in 1844, when 
the Committee determined that it was essential to 
the efficient control and superintendence of the 
Surveyors' department that a principal Surveyor 
should be appointed of high qualification. The 
gentleman selected by the Committee was Mr. 
A. F. B. Creuze, F.R.S., who continued to occupy 
the position until his death in November, 1852. Mr. 
Creuze was a member of the first Royal School of 
Naval Architecture, and was associated with Messrs. 
Chatfield & Read, members of the same school, in the 
preparation of successful competitive designs for ships 
of war, and in writing a most able and comprehensive 
Report to the Admiralty upon Naval Construction. 
Mr. Creuze was also the author of a separate treatise 
on Naval Architecture, published in the seventh 
edition of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." While he 
was in the service of the Society, an application was 
received from the Admiralty, and granted by the 
Committee, for permission to be given to him to 
design a frigate for the Royal Navy. Mr. Creuze 
was also one of the judges appointed to decide upon 
the merits of the several improvements in naval 
architecture which were shown in the Great Exhibi- 
tion of 1 85 1. 

It may here be remarked that in May, 1855, the 
services of Mr. Graham, who had been Secretary since 



T 



^\ 



Anna/s of Lloyd's Register. 1 5 1 

1837, were unfortunately lost to the Committee through 
the death of that gentleman ; and he was succeeded in 
his office by Mr. George B, Seyfang, who had been 
a Clerk in the London office of the Society. Mr. 
' Seyfang was an able Secretary, and continued to fill 
this important and responsible office until his death, 
which occurred in 1872. 

After the death of Mr. Creuze, the office of Chief 
Surveyor was jointly filled by Messrs. J. Martin 
and J. H. Ritchie. Mr. Martin entered the service 
of the Society in 1841, having previously been 
trained in Her Majesty's Dockyard at Chatham; and 
Mr. Ritchie, who had been in business as a ship- 
builder, was elected in 1842. 

The preparation of the Rules for the Construction 
of Iron Ships in 1854, and the revisions and ampli- 
fications of those Rules in 1863, were made under the 
direction of these gentlemen, assisted, as they were, 
by an able staff of Surveyors, both in London and the 
outports. Much credit is due to them for their com- 
pilation of these early Rules, which had to be framed 
on practical experience and information collected from 
reports received from the Society's Surveyors. 

So highly were the Society's two principal Surveyors 
esteemed by their professional brethren, that, in the 
address delivered at the opening of the Institution of 
Naval Architects, in the year i860, they were referred 
to in the following terms : — " The principal Surveyors 
to Lloyd's famous Register Offices are likewise known 
to be gentlemen of marked ability and most ample 
experience, and they also are with us." 

They were at the same time elected as Members 





152 Annals 0/ Lloyd's Register. 

of Council ; while Mr. Chapman, the Chairman, and 
Mr. Duncan Dunbar, the Deputy-Chairman, were 
elected as Vice-Presidents of the Institution. 

Messrs. Martin and Ritchie were the Society's 
principal Surveyors until the year 1870, when Mr. 
Waymouth was associated with them in the perform- 
ance of their official duties. Mr. Ritchie retired in 
1 87 1 and Mr. Martin the following year, each 
gentleman being granted a pension by the Committee. 
Upon their retirement, the duties of their office 
remained under the sole charge of Mr. Waymouth. 

On the death of Mr. G. B. Seyfang, in 1872, 
Mr. Waymouth was appointed Secretary, and was 
succeeded as Chief Surveyor by Mr. Martell, whose 
office has grown in importance and responsibility with 
the expansion of the Society that has taken place 
during the last ten years. At the same time the 
office of Assistant-Secretary was created, and con- 
ferred upon Mr. R. Gillespie, who had been in the 
service of the Society as a Clerk since the year 1839. 

Another addition to the staff" was made in 1874, 
when Mr. Parker was selected by the Committee to 
be the head of the engineering department, which 
was instituted in that year. 

As instances of the confidence which has been 
placed by the Government of the country in the 
Society and its officials, the following facts may be 
cited : — 

As already stated, the Committee in 1848, at the 
instance of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
authorized Mr. Creuze, then the Society's Chief Sur- 
veyor, to design a large frigate for the Royal Navy ; 



V 



■f- 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 153 

and in 1865, upon a question being raised in Parlia- 
ment as to the strength of H.M.S. Royal Alfred, 
then in process of conversion into an armour-plated 
block ship, the matter was, upon special application 
from the Admiralty, referred to Mr. Martin and 
Mr. Waymouth, two of the Society's principal Sur- 
veyors at that time. 

In the year 187 1, Mr. Thos. Chapman, the Chair- 
man, served upon the Royal Commission appointed 
to take evidence and report upon- the circumstances 
leading to the loss of H.M.S. Megcsra. In 
1873 Mr. George Duncan, a m.ember of the Com- 
mittee, sat upon the Royal Commission relating to 
Unseaworthy Ships ; and in 1876 Mr. Duncan and Mr. 
William Young, another member of the Committee, 
were two of the Royal Commissioners on the Inquiry 
into the Spontaneous Combustion of Coal in Ships. 

Upon the invitation of the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, Mr. B. Waymouth, the Secretary, 
in 1880, served upon a Committee to inquire into the 
circumstances relating to the loss of H.M.S. Atalanta; 
and later in the same year, Mr. John Glover, a member 
of the General Committee, Mr. T. B. Royden, a 
member of the Liverpool Committee, and Mr. Way- 
mouth, were three of the Royal Commissioners 
appointed to report upon the operation of the 
Tonnage Laws. 

At the present time Mr. James Laing and Mr. 
William Gray, members of the General Committee, 
Mr. T. B. Royden, of the Liverpool Committee, 
and Mr. B. Martell, the Society's Chief Surveyor, 
are serving upon the Departmental Committee 



154 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



appointed by the Board of Trade to investigate 
and report in regard to the question of fixing 
a proper Load-line for Merchant Ships ; whilst in 
the Royal Commission, which has just been appointed 
to inquire into the Loss of Life at Sea, we find the 
names of Messrs. Henry Green, James McGregor, 
L. C. Wakefield, and John Warrack, all members 
of the General Committee, and Mr. T. B. Royden 
of the Liverpool Committee of the Society. 





^1 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

ND now, in bringing to a conclusion this 
short account of the rise and progress of 
Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign 
Shipping, it remains but to glance briefly at the 
position which the Society at present occupies in the 
estimation of the public. 

That the growth of the Society's business has 
been co-extensive with the perfecting and extending of 
its organisation will be evident when it is stated that 
the Shipping built under the Society's inspection 
in the United Kingdom and elsewhere during the last 
few years amounts to : — 

In 1879, 501 vessels of 521,338 tons. 

„ 1880, 480 „ 517.664 ,, 

„ 1881, 5S2 „ 757,802 „ 

„ 1882, 682 ,, 989,002 ,, 

„ 1883, 848 „ 1,116,555 „ 

While out of the total number of merchant vessels 
built in the United Kingdom during the same period, 
including those of every type and nationality, about 




156 Annals of Lloyds Register. 

90 per cent, have, on the average, been surveyed and 
classed by the Society. 

The extent of the Society's progress is indicated 
not alone by the large amount of shipping which 
comes under its inspection, but also by the per- 
formance of new duties and the assumption of new 
responsibilities, such as have marked the later years 
of the Society's existence. 

When constituted on its present basis in 1834, the 
Society concerned itself only with the Survey of 
Shipping within the limits of the United Kingdom, 
and had only sixty-three Surveyors. It has from 
time to time made one addition after another, until 
now its staff of Surveyors numbers one hundred and 
seventy-five, and its ramifications have been extended 
to most of the important ports in both hemispheres, 
and may be said to encircle the globe. 

While growing in extent, its duties have also 
increased in complexity with the spread of scientific 
knowledge, and there is now comprised within its 
sphere of operations a great variety of duties, each 
calling for the exercise of the highest skill and of 
special training. 

For instance, in addition to the Survey and 
Classification of Wood, Iron, Steel, and Composite 
Vessels, — perfected from time to time as experience 
suggested, — the Society now carries on the Inspec- 
tion during and after construction of Engines and 
Boilers of Steam Vessels by a large staff of experienced 
Marine Engineers; — it controls and regulates the 
testing of Anchors and Chains at eight out of the nine 
principal Proving-houses in the country, under the 



m 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 15^ 

provisions of the Chain and Anchors Act of 1871 ; — it 
undertakes the testing of Steel intended to be used in 
the construction of Ships and Boilers, and performs a 
like duty in the Inspection of large Ship and Engine 
Forgings and Castings ; — it provides for the Survey 
and Classification, under Special Rules, of Yachts, and 
also of Vessels built for particular purposes ; — while 
the most recent, and one of the most important, 
instances of the development of the Society's respon- 
sibilities is to be found in the promulgation by the 
Committee, two years ago, of Freeboard Tables, by 
which the Society undertakes to assign maximum 
Load-lines to Vessels of all types. 

While much depends upon the Committee as the 
governing and directing body, their labour would be 
of little avail if they had not able and intelligent 
officers to give effect to their instructions. The 
Society's staff of surveyors, strengthened as it . has 
been from time to time by the appointment of men 
possessed of high scientific culture and wide practical 
experience, comprises a body of officers whose collective 
knowledge and experience in all that pertains to Naval 
Architecture and Marine Engineering, it is universally 
admitted, it would be difficult to equal ; and, by trans- 
ferring the Surveyors occasionally from one part of 
the country to another, such a uniformity of practice 
at the several ports is attained as cannot fail to be 
advantageous to all concerned. 

The Society, founded upon voluntary principles^ 
and deriving its strength, not from legislative enact- 
ment, but from the confidence which it inspires in the 
Shipping and Mercantile community, has gone on 



158 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



from year to year growing with the growth and 
strengthening with the strength of the Mercantile 
Marine. During the last ten years of its existence it 
has progressed by leaps and bounds, until at the 
present moment it can claim to be a thoroughly 
Representative and truly International Registry of 
Merchant Shipping. 




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COMMITTEE OF MANAGEMENT. 








COMMITTEE OF MANAGEMENT. 

1884-85. 

William Henry Tindall, Chairman. 
Michael Wills, Deputy-Chairman. 
Thomas B. Walker, Chairma7i of the Sub- Committees of 
Classificatiofi. 

Members Elected in London. 



H. J. Bristow, 
John Corry, 
Solomon I. DaCosta, 
James Dixon, 
George Duncan, 
John Glover, 
Henry Green, 
George Lidgett, 
H. E. Montgomerie, 
Frederic B. B. Natusch, 



James Park, 
A. O. Robinson, 
Wm. Frederick Saunders, 
Charles R. Tatham, 
John Henry Tod, 
George Dorman Tyser, 
Leonard C. Wakefield, 
Arthur Gates Wilkinson, 
John Willis, 
William Young. 



Henry Nixon, 

Rt. Hon. George J. Goschen, M.P., Chairman of the 

Committee of Lloyd's. 

William Strang, Chairman of the General Shipowners^ 

Society. 

Members Elected at the principal Outports. 
For Liverpool : 

H. T. Wallace, Chairman of the Liverpool Committee. 
J. H, Worthington, Deputy-Chairman ditto. 
John S. Allen, Thomas R. Shallcross, 

Donald Kennedy, C. B. Vallance, 

John Rankin, John Williamson. 



( William Adamson, 
_ ) Walter Easton, 

Glasgow ^^j^^^^^ Low, 

(^ James McGregor. 

„ f Ralph M. Hudson, 

Sunderland < t ^ t • 

( James Lauig. 

Hartlepool f William Gray, 

District ( John Hall. 

Bristol — John Evans. 



Leith District — John Warrack. 

Greenock — Dugald Macdougall. 
R. S. Donkin, 
J. D. Milburn, 
E. H. Watts. 

DrR'cTJ Col. E.S. Hill, C.B. 

Hull — Henry J. Atkinson. 



Tyne 
District 



Trustees. 



George Allfrey, 
George Duncan, 
William Henry Tindall, 



John Henry Tod, 
Thomas B. W^alker, 
Michael Wills. 



Secretary.— Bernard Waymouth. 
Assistant - Secretary. — Richard Gillespie. 




Afinals of Lloyd's Register. 



i6i 



LIVERPOOL BRANCH. 

Committee. 
H. T. Wallace, Chairman. 
J. H. Worthington, Deputy-Chairman. 
John S. Allen, James Poole, 



Samuel Cross, 
David Fernie, 
Donald Kennedy, 
Henry Lenton, 



John Rankin, 
Thomas R. Shallcross, 
C. B. Vallance, 
John Williamson. 



Thomas B. Royden, Chairman of the Shipbuilders^ 
Association (^x officio^. 

Secretary — John Frederick Light. 




M 




l62 



Annals of Lloyd* s Register. 



LIST OF SURVEYORS. 

The Surveyors at the following Ports are exclusively the Officers 
of the Society, and are not permitted to engage in any other 
business or employment whatsoever. 



London. 

Benjamin Martell, Chief Surveyor. 

Harry J, Cornish, ) Assistants to Chief 
Thomas Edwards, j Surveyor. 

William Parker, [ Chief Engineer 
' ( Surveyor. 

James T. Milton, | Assistants to Chief 
David Purves, j Engineer Surveyor. 



Engineer Surveyors { g^X E. Stromeyer, 



Wlliam C. Davey. 
Senhouse Martindale. 
John W. Miles. 
James H. Truscott. 
Thomas C. Read. 
Philip Jenkins. 
Edward C. Champness. 
E. J. Tierney. 
Thomas S. Warren. 
J. T. Roberts. 
George R. Mares. 
H. Hand. 
George E. Wilkinson. 



Aberdeen 

Aberystwith ... 

Bangor 

Barrow and Whitehaven . . . 

Engiiieer Surveyor 
Belfast 
Bideford 
Bristol 

Cardiff and Newport 

Ship and Engineer Surveyors 

Dublin 
Dundee 

Engineer Surveyor 
Falmouth 

Engineer Surveyor 



Glasgow 



. Thomas W. Kettle. 
. William John. 
. Thomas Devonald. 
r John Lawrence. 

■ ( Charles Buchanan. 
. Duncan Ritchie. 

. James Turpin. 
. Charles Fittock. 
. H. M. Williams. 

/ Henry T. Tyrrell. 
• I J. G. G. Rule. 

I A. E. Keydell. 

■ \ George Kendall. 
. John Mugford. 

. George P. Cooper. 
. John Sturrock. 
. William Bowden. 
. Lawrence Moreton. 

(William T. Mumford. 
Thomas J. Dodd. 
George Stanbury, 
Thomas J. House. 
Charles Fowling. 
Charles Edwards. 
Charles E. Burney. 
Herbert W. Dove. 
William Andrews. 





List of Surveyors. 



163 



Engineer Surveyors 

Ship and Engineer Surveyors 
Inspector of Forgings 

Greenock 

Engineer Surveyor 

Hartlepool 

Engineer Surveyors 

Hull 

Engineer Surveyor 
Leith 

Ship and Engineer Surveyor 

Liverpool 

Engineer Surveyors 
Milford Haven 

Newcastle 



Engineer Surveyors 

Ship and Engineer Surveyors 

Plymouth 

Queenstown 

Southampton 



Sunderland 

Engineer Surveyors 
Inspector of Forgings 



j James MoUison. 
\ Walter E. Robson. 
( G. L. Hindmarsh. 
I John Sanderson, 

George Newcomb. 
[ Christopher Besant. 
< John Dawkins. 
( S. J. P. Thearle. 

Andrew C. Heron. 
/' Charles Davidson. 
) Frederick W. Bonniwell. 
j Thomas Phillips. 

V Joseph Thomson. 
j James Bain. 
I James Sankey. 

James McNeil. 
John B. Stevens. 
William Paulsen. 
William J. Darling. 
r John F. Light. 
J Edward C. ^\'heeler. 
■ " j William Moverly. 

V Charles Skentelbery. 
J Peter McGregor. 

••• I J. E. Stoddart. 
... James D. Warlow. 

{Henry J. Boolds. 
James Sibun. 
Thomas H. Cooke. 
Thomas Shilston. 
J. W. Scullard. 
Robert Williamson. 
( John Brockat. 
....^ J. F. Walliker. 
{ Richard Hirst. 
/ R. W. Coomber. 
••■] JohnH. Heck. 
... Edward ElUott. 
... J. T. Head. 
... James L. Sinnette. 

{Richard J. Reed. 
Joseph Keen. 
WiUiam Bath. 
Jesse Williams. 
William Johnstone. 
T. H. Sandr>'. 
William Allison. 
Patrick Salmon. 
G. A. Milner. 
Henry Cameron. 




1 64 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



Swansea 



Thomas Ashton. 



The Surveyors at the following Ports do not hold appointments 
as the exclusive Servants of the Society. 



Guernsey 

Ipswich 

Lynn . . . 

Orkneys 

Penzance 

Ramsgate 

Sligo ... 

WATERtORD 

Wexford 



George T. SuUock. 
William Taylor. 
William F. Beaumont. 
James Mowat. 
Hugh Tregarthen. 
Edward Jones. 
William Pollexfen. 
Andrew Horn. 
Robert Sparrow. 



COLONIAL AND FOREIGN SURVEYORS. 

France. 
Bordeaux ... ... ... ... Jules Vandercruyce. 

Engineer Surveyor ... ... A. Donzelle. 

Havre, Ship and Engineer Surveyor A. Le Laidier. 
Marseilles, Ship and Engineer Sur-\^^^^^^^ Westerman. 

veyor... 
Nantes 



Belgium. 
Belgium 

Engineer Surveyor 

Holland. 
Amsterdam ... 

Exclusive Engineer Surveyor 

Rotterdam ... 

Veendam 



Auguste L. Guibert. 

Heinrich Paasch. 
Francis Demblon. 



D. D. Borchers. 
W. F. D. van OUefen. 
Jan C. W. Loos. 
H. P. Hazewinkel. 



Emil Padderatz. 
J. A. Libbertz. 
W. Cordes. 

F. H. T. Thomsen. 



Germany. 

Hamburg 

Engineer Surveyor 

Assistant Surveyor at Rostock . . . 
Assistant Ship and Engineer Sur- 
veyor at Bremerhaven 

Denmark. 

Copenhagen, Ship and Engineer Sur- ) p -^xt^. Kindler. 
veyor ... J * 

Norway. 
Bergen, Ship and Engineer Surveyor, . . 



E. Hougland. 



List of Surveyors. 



«65 



:} 



Sweden. 
Gothenburg, Ship and Engineer Sur- 
veyor... 

Spain and Portugal. 
Barcelon.\, Ship and Engineer Sur- ) j j 

veyor j •'* •'' 

Bilbao J. T. de Ugarte. 

Cadiz, Ship and Engineer Surveyor . . . James Cochrane. 
Lisbon, Ship and Engineer Surveyor. . . J. Westwood. 



Carl Axel MoUer. 



Browne. 



Italy and Austria. 



Genoa 

Engineer Surveyor 

Leghorn 

Trieste 

Engineer Surveyor 
Assistant Surveyor at Fiume 
Ditto at Venice 

Ditto at LussiNO 



Francesco Schiaffino. 
Francis Westerman. 
Costantino Gori. 
Elias Florio. 
Frederic SchnabL 
Ignazio Bonetich. 
Matteo Fabro, 
Antonio E. Tarrabocchia. 



Malta. 
Malta, Ship and Engineer Surveyor \V. Hinchcliffe. 

Eussia. 

Sebastopol, Ship and Engineer Sur- ) t l ^-. <-. 
veyor ... ... | John E. Corry. 

British North America. 

Prince Edward Island Richard Sloggett. 

Quebec John Dick. 

St. John ... Charles R. Coker. 

United States. 
New York, Principal Sun>eyor for the \ r^-, /^ j 

United States-Exclusive Surveyor ) ^^^^^^^ Congdon. 
Baltimore Edward H. Sanford. 

Engineer Surveyor Richard Wells. 

"QosTO-s, Ship and Engineer Sun>eyor... Oliver L. Shaw. 
Philadelphia, Ship and Engineer \ t i. tt 

Surveyor ... jJohnHaug. 

British Guiana. 
... Alexander Duncan. 



Demerara 



Cape Town 
Port Natal 



South Africa. 



James Anderson, 
Alexander Airth. 



N 




1 66 



Annals of Lloyd's Register. 



East Indies. 
Bombay 

Engineer Surveyor 

Calcutta 

Mauritius 

Singapore 

Engineer Surveyor 

Java. 
Batavia, Ship and Engi?ieer Surveyor 
Assist. Ship Surveyor at Cheribon 
Samarang 
Sourabaya 



A. C. Clarke. 
James Moir. 
D. McKellar. 
John Cowin, 
Charles Fittock. 
Robert Park. 

William Fargie. 
M. Priebee. 
A. J, Herckenrath. 
P. Vader. 



Philippine Islands. 
M-KTHiLk, Ship and Engineer Surveyor... Frederick H. Sawyer. 

China, 
Edward Burnie. 

... Andrew Johnston. 
C. G. Warburg. 

... H. Sonne. 

Tasmania, atid Neiv Zealand. 
William Begg. 
Douglas Elder. 
Robert F. Pockley. 
William B. Brown. 
Donald Macmillan. 
M. T. Clayton. 
William Watson. 
James Ure Russell. 
William Bendall. 



Hong Kong 

Engineer Surveyor 
Shanghai 

Engineer Surveyor 

Australia, 
Adelaide 
Melbourne . . . 
Sydney 
Brisbane 

Hobart (Tasmania) 
Auckland, N.Z. 
Christchurch, N.Z. 
Dunedin, N.Z. 
Wellington, N.Z. 




\VYMAN AND SONS, PRINTERS, GREAT QUEEN STREET, LONDON, W.C. 





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University of Toronto 


374865 
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